Spatial and temporal look at ten-years air quality of Istanbul city


This study is aimed to investigate spatial and seasonal variations of air pollutants in Istanbul between 2007 and 2017. Target air pollutants were carbon monoxide, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. Air quality data of the city of Istanbul were obtained from 31 continuous air quality monitoring stations located at the Anatolian and the European Sides of the city. Spatial and temporal variations of the air pollutants were assessed by statistical methods (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, all air pollutants showed seasonal variations and all parameters were found to be higher during the heating periods than other periods (p < 0.05), except for ozone. The annual average values of carbon monoxide, particulate matter with diameter of less than 10 µm, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide (except for nitrogen dioxide levels measured in 2017) concentrations were below the national limit values in all stations between 2007 and 2017. In terms of yearly variation of the air pollutants, carbon monoxide and ozone showed statistically significant increasing trends (p < 0.001). Overall, once ten-years average air quality data were compared with current air quality limit values which was effective since 2019, PM and NO2 may have limit exceedance problems in the next years. Moreover, levels of particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 µm were measured at 3 air quality monitoring stations, exceeded both World Health Organization and European Union limit values. Furthermore, positive correlations were found among the air pollutants (p < 0.001).

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Air quality monitoring station


Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes


Code of federal regulation


Carbon monoxide


European Union




Turkish air quality evaluation and management regulation


Istanbul metropolitan municipality


Ministry of environment and urbanization


Marmara clean air center


Nitrogen monoxide

NO2 :

Nitrogen dioxide


Nitrogen oxides

O3 :



Particulate matter

PM10 :

Particulate matter with diameter of less than 10 µm

PM2.5 :

Particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 µm

SO2 :

Sulfur dioxide


Technischer Überwachungsverein (International technical control company)


United States Environmental Protection Agency


World Health Organization


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This study has not been supported financially neither is a part of a broader project.

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Correspondence to Sibel Mentese.

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This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Editorial responsibility: Mohamed F. Yassin.

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Mentese, S., Ogurtani, S.Ö. Spatial and temporal look at ten-years air quality of Istanbul city. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2021).

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  • Air quality
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Istanbul
  • Nitrogen oxides
  • Ozone
  • Particulate matter
  • Sulfur dioxide