Wastewater treatment of food industries through constructed wetland: a review

Abstract

Constructed wetland (CW) is reliable technology for a range of wastewater treatment generated through various sources. Contrary to traditional wastewater treatment technologies, CW is an environment friendly and profitable approach with less personal supervision requirements. Moreover, CW has been successfully implemented for diverse agriculture and industrial sectors for sewage or municipal wastewater treatment. In this review, recent developments in constructed wetlands related to various food industries such as seafood-processing industry, olive mill industry, dairy, alcohol fermentation industry and abattoir industry at both laboratory- and pilot-scale levels are presented. It has been found that high pollutant loading rates and toxic substances can be effectively treated with CW; thus, they have great potential to be easily operative in developing countries and rural areas. Finally, some challenges that may affect the performance of CWs with some suggestions to improve their performance are also discussed.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Data from Gasiunas et al. (2005)

Fig. 4

Data from Serrano et al. (2011)

Change history

  • 14 September 2020

    There is a change in the authorship of the article since the original publication. A request from Dr. Nasser was received to remove his name from the authorship as he may not fully meet the authorship criteria.

Abbreviations

CW:

Constructed wetland

SSF-CWs:

Subsurface flow

HF:

Horizontal flow

VF:

Vertical flow

FWS-CWs:

Free water surface constructed wetland

HCW:

Hybrid wetland

NH4+–N:

Ammonium nitrogen

TP:

Total phosphorous

COD:

Chemical oxygen demand

BOD:

Biological oxygen demand

TSS:

Total suspended solids

NO3 N:

Nitrate nitrogen

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Acknowledgement

SS acknowledges financial support from the University of New South Wales, Australia.

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Sehar, S., Nasser, H.A.A. Wastewater treatment of food industries through constructed wetland: a review. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 6453–6472 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02472-7

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Keywords

  • Abattoir industry
  • Constructed wetland
  • Influent
  • Surface loading rate
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Wineries