Dietary consumption of metal(loid)s-contaminated rice grown in croplands around industrial sectors: a human health risk perspective

Abstract

The study aimed at analyzing the level of metal(loid)s in rice grown in croplands around industrial sectors of northern India with an emphasis on human health risk due to their consumption. Ninety samples of rice grains were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscope, and methodology of the US Environmental Protection Agency was used for assessing human health risk. Metal(loid)s concentrations (mg/kg) in rice grains decreased in order of iron (35.081) > zinc (24.245) > manganese (12.191) > lead (0.431) > molybdenum (0.451) > nickel (0.139) > chromium (0.058) > arsenic (0.030) > cobalt (0.019) > cadmium (0.012). The concentrations of nickel, lead and zinc in rice exceeded Indian permissible limits for food at some locations. Significant spatial variations among metal(loid)s can be attributed to varied anthropogenic activities. Factor analyses elucidated three factors which accounted for ~ 75% of the total variability. Consequently, three sources of rice contamination, namely air and atmospheric dust (32%), irrigational water (29.59%) and soil (13.36%), were identified. In ~ 12% of the samples, daily consumption of lead, manganese and nickel exceeded the tolerable limits specified by the World Health Organization. Molybdenum, lead, cobalt and arsenic were identified as key contributors to health risks, while nickel, cadmium and chromium contributed the least. Cumulative hazard index across the sites ranged from 1.502 to 18.342. Its average value was > 1, which indicated a significant health risk imposed by metal(loid)s to dietary consumers of rice.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Alloway BJ (2013) Heavy metals in soils, vol 72. Scotland Blackie Academic and Professional Publishers, Glasgow, pp 175–182

    Google Scholar 

  2. APHA (American Public Health Association) (2012) Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  3. Aschale M, Sileshi Y, Kelly-Quinn M, Hailu D (2017) Pollution assessment of toxic and potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils of the city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 98(2):234–243

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2018) Toxic substances portal. Toxicological profiles. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/index.asp. Accessed 19 June 2018

  5. Awasthi SK (2000) Prevention of FOOD ADULTERation Act No. 37 of, 1954 Central and State rules as amended for 1999. Ashoka Law House, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  6. Cao H, Chen J, Zhang J, Zhang H, Qiao L, Men Y (2010) Heavy metals in rice and garden vegetables and their potential health risks to inhabitants in the vicinity of an industrial zone in Jiangsu, China. J Environ Sci 22(11):1792–1799

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) (2009) Comprehensive environmental assessment of industrial clusters in India. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India. pp 1–56. http://cpcb.nic.in/displaypdf.php?id=Q1BBL05ld0l0ZW1fMTUxX0ZpbmFsX0Jvb2sxLnBkZg. Accessed on 02 July 2018

  8. Dang HS, Jaiswal DD, Parameswaran M, Deodhar KP, Krishnamony S (1996) Age dependent physical and anatomical Indian data for application in internal dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosim 63:217–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. FAO (1985) Food and Agriculture Organization. Water quality for agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29, Rev. 1. Rome

  10. Fu J, Zhou Q, Liu J, Liu W, Wang T, Zhang Q, Jiang G (2008) High levels of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) from a typical E-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health. Chemosphere 71:1269–1275

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Fu J, Zhang A, Wang T, Qu G, Shao J, Yuan B et al (2013) Influence of e-waste dismantling and its regulations: temporal trend, spatial distribution of heavy metals in rice grains, and its potential health risk. Environ Sci Technol 47(13):7437–7445

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gałuszka A, Migaszewski ZM, Dołęgowska S et al (2015) Geochemical background of potentially toxic trace elements in soils of the historic copper mining area: a case study from Miedzianka Mt., Holy Cross Mountains, south-central Poland. Environ Earth Sci 74(6):4589–4605

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Giri S, Singh AK (2017) Human health risk assessment due to dietary intake of heavy metals through rice in the mining areas of Singhbhum Copper Belt, India. Environ Sci Poll Res 24(17):14945–14956

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. HIMDHARA (2014) People’s public hearing on pollution in industrial areas. Himparivesh, Himachal Pradesh India. pp 1–48. http://www.himdhara.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/BBN-PH-Report-5th-June-2014.pdf. Accessed on 04 November 2018

  15. Jain SC, Mehta SC, Kumar B, Reddy AR, Nagaratnam A (1995) Formulation of the reference Indian adult: anatomical and physiological data. Health Phys 68:509–522

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. JECFA (1999) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Reports of the 53rd meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, JECFA/53/TRS. Rome

  17. JECFA (2003) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Summary and conclusions of the 61st meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. JECFA/61/SC. Rome

  18. Kaiser HF (1960) The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educ Psychol Meas 20:141–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kashyap R, Verma KS, Uniyal SK, Bhardwaj SK (2018) Geospatial distribution of metal(loid)s and human health risk assessment due to intake of contaminated groundwater around an industrial hub of northern India. Environ Monit Assess 190:136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Khatkar BS, Chaudhary N, Dangi P (2016) Production and consumption of grains: India. In: Wrigley C, Corke H, Seetharaman K, Faubion J (eds) Encyclopedia of food grains, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Oxford, pp 367–373

    Google Scholar 

  21. Lin HT, Wong SS, Li GC (2004) Heavy metal content of rice and shellfish in Taiwan. J Food Drug Anal 12(2):167–174

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Liu H, Probst A, Liao B (2005) Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China). Sci Total Environ 339(1–3):153–166

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. MSME (Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprise India) (2018) Brief industrial profile of Sirmaur district Himachal Pradesh, India. Ministry of MSME. Govt. of India. pp 1–14. http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/20167/Brief%20Industries%20Profile%20of%20%20Sirmaur%20(H.P.).pdf. Accessed on 02 July 2018

  24. Muthayya S, Sugimoto JD, Montgomery S, Maberly GF (2014) An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption. Ann New York Acad Sci 1324(1):7–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Nawab J, Farooqi S, Xiaoping W, Khan S, Khan A (2017) Levels, dietary intake, and health risk of potentially toxic metals in vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops in Pakistan. Environ Sci Poll Res 25:1–14

    Google Scholar 

  26. NSSO (2014) National Sample Survey Office, Household Consumption of various goods and services in India 2011–2012, NSS 68th Round, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India

  27. Ogunkunle CO, Varun M, Jimoh MA, Olorunmaiye KS, Fatoba PO (2016) Evaluating the trace metal pollution of an urban paddy soil and bioaccumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) with the associated dietary risks to local population: a case study of Ilorin, north-central Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci 75(20):1383

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Phuong T, Van CP et al (1999) Elemental content of Vietnamese rice Part 1 sampling, analysis and comparison with previous studies. Analyst 124:553–560

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Rahman MA, Rahman MM, Reichman SM, Lim RP, Naidu R (2014) Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 100:53–60

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Singh S, Kumar M (2006) Trace metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi. Environ Monit Assess 120:79–91

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Singh J, Upadhyay SK, Pathak RK, Gupta V (2011) Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and paddy crop (Oryza sativa), irrigated with water of Ramgarh Lake, Gorakhpur, UP, India. Toxicol Environ Chem 93(3):462–473

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Song B, Lei M, Chen T, Zheng YM, Xie YF, Li XY, Gao D (2009) Assessing the health risk of heavy metals in vegetables to the general population in Beijing, China. J Environ Sci (China) 21:1702–1709

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Turekian KK, Wedepohl KH (1961) Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Geo Soc Am Bull 72(2):175–192

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (1986) Guidelines for the health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. 51 Federal Register 34014 (September 24, 1986)

  35. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (1996) EPA Method 3052: Microwave assisted acid digestion of siliceous and organically based matrices. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington

  36. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2007) United States Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System database, Philadelphia

  37. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2011) United States Environmental Protection Agency, Risk based concentration table, Washington

  38. Usero J, Gonzalez-Regalado E, Gracia I (1997) Trace metals in the bivalve mollusks Ruditapes decussates and Ruditapes philippinarum from the Atlantic Coast of southern Spain. Environ Int 23(3):291–298

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Wayne RO (1990) A physical explanation of the lognormality of pollutant concentrations. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 40:1378–1383

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Yadav P, Singh B, Garg VK, Mor S, Pulhani V (2017) Bioaccumulation and health risks of heavy metals associated with consumption of rice grains from croplands in Northern India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess: Int J 23(1):14–27

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Zhuang P, McBride MB, Xia H, Li N, Li Z (2009a) Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine, South China. Sci Total Environ 407(5):1551–1561

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Zhuang P, Zou B, Li NY, Li ZA (2009b) Heavy metal contamination in soils and food crops around Dabaoshan mine in Guangdong, China: implication for human health. Environ Geochem Health 31:707–715

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the director, CSIR-IHBT for support and members of High Altitude Biology Division for suggestions. Part of the work was supported by the MoEF&CC via. National Mission on Himalayan Studies. R. K. is also thankful to the director of research and faculty members of the Department of Environmental Science, Dr. YSP UHF Nauni, Solan (H.P) for facilities. The authors would also like to thank the editor(s) and reviewer(s) for their valuable comments and guidance that helped in improving the earlier version of this manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. Kashyap.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Editorial responsibility: M. Abbaspour.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 22 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kashyap, R., Ahmad, M., Uniyal, S.K. et al. Dietary consumption of metal(loid)s-contaminated rice grown in croplands around industrial sectors: a human health risk perspective. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 8505–8516 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02258-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Factor analyses
  • Health risk assessment
  • Himalaya
  • Rice grains