Volatile organic compounds analysis and characterization on activated biochar prepared from rice husk

Abstract

Activated biochar has been used in various areas, i.e., wastewater treatment. However, biochar contains volatile organic compounds, some of which are toxic organic pollutants that pose health risks to human. In this study, activated biochar was prepared by pyrolysis method using rice husks as raw materials and H2O as the activator. The volatile organic compound concentration of biochar before and after activation, as well as the adsorption characteristics of activated biochar, was investigated. The structure of the biochar was characterized by FTIR, SEM, and specific surface area analyzer. The results showed that activated biochar surface was mainly composed of carboxyl groups, and no phenolic hydroxyl or lactone groups formed during the process. In total, 54 volatile organic compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography–mass spectrometer. The detection frequency of 45 volatile organic compounds reached 100%. The concentration of sum of these compounds was 93.26 and 110.62 μg/g in the biochar before and after activation, respectively. Results of adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption and resolution of activated biochar to n-hexane were 29.33 and 5.4 mg/g, respectively. Compared to the biochar sample without activation, the activated biochar with the ratio of charcoal to water of 3:1 showed the best adsorption to n-hexane, whose surface area reached 351.23 m2/g.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Boehm H (1994) Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons. Carbon 32:759–769

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Chen JY, Zhu DQ, Sun C (2007) Effect of heavy metals on the sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to wood charcoal. Environ Sci Technol 41:2536–2541

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Fan Q, Sun J, Chu L, Cui L, Quan G, Yan J, Hussain Q, Iqbal M (2018) Effects of chemical oxidation on surface oxygen-containing functional groups and adsorption behavior of biochar. Chemosphere 207:33–40

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gao K, Jian M, Yu H, Cheng P, Xie Y, Yu P (2016) Effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the biochar and its surface functional groups made from rice straw and rice husk. Environ Chem 35:1663–1669

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Gen-Xing P, Zhen-Heng L, Lian-Qin L (2011) Perspective on biomass carbon industrialization of organic waste from agriculture and rural areas in China. J Agric Sci Technol 13:75–82

    Google Scholar 

  6. Gwenzi W, Chaukura N, Noubactep C, Mukome FN (2017) Biochar-based water treatment systems as a potential low-cost and sustainable technology for clean water provision. J Environ Manag 197:732–749

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hale SE, Lehmann J, Rutherford D, Zimmerman AR, Bachmann RT, Shitumbanuma V, O’Toole A, Sundqvist KL, Arp HPH, Cornelissen G (2012) Quantifying the total and bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins in biochars. Environ Sci Technol 46:2830–2838

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hernandez-Soriano MC, Kerré B, Kopittke PM, Horemans B, Smolders E (2016) Biochar affects carbon composition and stability in soil: a combined spectroscopy-microscopy study. Sci Rep 6:25127

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hilber I, Blum F, Leifeld J, Schmidt H-P, Bucheli TD (2012) Quantitative determination of PAHs in biochar: a prerequisite to ensure its quality and safe application. J Agric Food Chem 60:3042–3050

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ho S-H, Yang Z-K, Nagarajan D, Chang J-S, Ren N-Q (2017) High-efficiency removal of lead from wastewater by biochar derived from anaerobic digestion sludge. Bioresour Technol 246:142–149

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Jang J, Miran W, Divine SD, Nawaz M, Shahzad A, Woo SH, Lee DS (2018) Rice straw-based biochar beads for the removal of radioactive strontium from aqueous solution. Sci Total Environ 615:698–707

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kim P, Hensley D, Labbé N (2014) Nutrient release from switchgrass-derived biochar pellets embedded with fertilizers. Geoderma 232:341–351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kloss S, Zehetner F, Dellantonio A, Hamid R, Ottner F, Liedtke V, Schwanninger M, Gerzabek MH, Soja G (2012) Characterization of slow pyrolysis biochars: effects of feedstocks and pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties. J Environ Qual 41:990–1000

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Liu P, Liu W-J, Jiang H, Chen J-J, Li W-W, Yu H-Q (2012) Modification of bio-char derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass and its application in removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution. Bioresour Technol 121:235–240

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Lopez-Anton MA, Gil R, Fuente E, Díaz-Somoano M, Martínez-Tarazona MR, Ruiz B (2015) Activated carbons from biocollagenic wastes of the leather industry for mercury capture in oxy-combustion. Fuel 142:227–234

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Nartey OD, Zhao B (2014) Biochar preparation, characterization, and adsorptive capacity and its effect on bioavailability of contaminants: an overview. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2014:715398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Novak JM, Busscher WJ, Laird DL, Ahmedna M, Watts DW, Niandou MA (2009) Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a southeastern coastal plain soil. Soil Sci 174:105–112

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. O’Connor D, Peng T, Li G, Wang S, Duan L, Mulder J, Cornelissen G, Cheng Z, Yang S, Hou D (2018) Sulfur-modified rice husk biochar: a green method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil. Sci Total Environ 621:819–826

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ok YS, Chang SX, Gao B, Chung H-J (2015) SMART biochar technology—a shifting paradigm towards advanced materials and healthcare research. Environ Technol Innov 4:206–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Schmidt H-P, Kammann C, Niggli C, Evangelou MW, Mackie KA, Abiven S (2014) Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments to a vineyard soil: influences on plant growth, nutrient uptake, plant health and grape quality. Agric Ecosyst Environ 191:117–123

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Senthilkumar T, Chattopadhyay S, Miranda LR (2017) Optimization of activated carbon preparation from Pomegranate Peel (Punica granatum Peel) using RSM. Chem Eng Commun 204:238–248

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Shan D, Deng S, Zhao T, Wang B, Wang Y, Huang J, Yu G, Winglee J, Wiesner MR (2016) Preparation of ultrafine magnetic biochar and activated carbon for pharmaceutical adsorption and subsequent degradation by ball milling. J Hazard Mater 305:156–163

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Sing KS (1985) Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (Recommendations 1984). Pure Appl Chem 57:603–619

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Spokas KA, Novak JM, Stewart CE, Cantrell KB, Uchimiya M, Dusaire MG, Ro KS (2011) Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar. Chemosphere 85:869–882

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Taherymoosavi S, Verheyen V, Munroe P, Joseph S, Reynolds A (2017) Characterization of organic compounds in biochars derived from municipal solid waste. Waste Manag 67:131–142

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Uchimiya M, Chang S, Klasson KT (2011) Screening biochars for heavy metal retention in soil: role of oxygen functional groups. J Hazard Mater 190:432–441

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Wang G, Dou B, Zhang Z, Wang J, Liu H, Hao Z (2015) Adsorption of benzene, cyclohexane and hexane on ordered mesoporous carbon. J Environ Sci 30:65–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Yang H, Kudo S, Hazeyama S, Norinaga K, Masek O, Hayashi J-I (2013) Detailed analysis of residual volatiles in chars from the pyrolysis of biomass and lignite. Energy Fuels 27:3209–3223

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Yargicoglu EN, Sadasivam BY, Reddy KR, Spokas K (2015) Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars. Waste Manag 36:256–268

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Zhang G, Hao Z, Jiang M, Wang H (2011) Study on foreign regulations and standards of stationary sources VOCs emission control. Huan jing ke xue Huanjing kexue 32:3501–3508

    Google Scholar 

  31. Zhang X, Gao B, Zheng Y, Hu X, Creamer AE, Annable MD, Li Y (2017) Biochar for volatile organic compound (VOC) removal: sorption performance and governing mechanisms. Bioresour Technol 245:606–614

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (41371448), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (3132016326), and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1406405).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Q. Li.

Additional information

Editorial responsibility: M. Abbaspour.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 66 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, J., Li, Q., Qian, C. et al. Volatile organic compounds analysis and characterization on activated biochar prepared from rice husk. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 7653–7662 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02219-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Rice husk
  • Pyrolysis
  • Activation
  • Volatile organic compounds
  • Adsorption