Advertisement

The assessment of the genotoxicity of e-waste leachates from e-waste dumpsites in Metro Manila, Philippines

  • Z. F. AlamEmail author
  • A. J. V. Riego
  • J. H. R. P. Samson
  • S. A. V. Valdez
Original Paper

Abstract

The extraordinary growth in the usage of electronic gadgets and their improper disposal has led to the massive problem of electronic waste management in the Philippines. The improper disposal of e-waste can lead to the exposure to the hazardous substances that can be harmful to the humans as well as to the environment. Genotoxicity of e-waste from three different e-waste landfills sites in and around Metro Manila was investigated using the Allium cepa bioassay. Morphological modifications of the Allium cepa roots, inhibition of root growth, mitotic index and the induction of high frequency of chromosomal aberrations were observed in the Allium cepa roots exposed to e-waste leachates prepared from the soil samples collected from all three sites tested as compared to the control. Since heavy metals are one of the hazardous components released during e-waste recycling, environmental contamination was further detected by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to detect the presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the soil samples of the e-waste recycling sites and in the hair of the informal recyclers. Our results are among the first few in the Philippines that establish the genotoxicity of e-waste as well as trace the route of the heavy metal component of e-waste into the human subjects through the exposure to the environmental contamination by e-waste. Hence, a proper e-waste management is an absolute priority to minimize the risk to the Filipino population and the environment.

Keywords

E-waste Heavy metals Philippines Chromosomal aberrations Allium cepa Genotoxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Ms. Anita Celdran, Director, Sustainable Project Management (SPM), Philippines, and Ms. Joyet Castor, Project Manager and Community Liaison, (SPM, Philippines) for their continuous support and help in our field survey and identifying the e-waste recyclers located at Tondo, Manila, Dr. Frumencio Co, Mathematics Department, De La Salle University, for his help in carrying out the statistical analysis of the results and Dr. Maria Carmen Tan, Mr. Michael Dominic Ajero and Mr. Irving Chiong from the Chemistry Department for their assistance in carrying out the AAS. This study was funded by the University Research Coordination Office (URCO), De La Salle University, Project No-59 FU3TAY14-3TAY15 with Dr Zeba F. Alam as Principal Investigator.

References

  1. Alam Z (2016) The assessment of the of e-waste management generated from cellular phones, laptops, and personal computers in the Philippines. Manila J Sci 9:27–42Google Scholar
  2. Asante K, Agusa T, Biney C, Agyekum W, Bello M, Otsuka M, Itai T, Takahashi S, Tanabe S (2012) Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana. Sci Total Environ 424:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babatunde B, Anabuike F (2015) In vivo cytogenotoxicity of electronic waste leachate from iloabuchi electronic market, Diobu, Rivers State, Nigeria on Allium cepa. Challenges 6(1):173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakare A, Pandey A, Bajpayee M, Bhargav D, Chowdhuri D, Singh K, Murthy R, Dhawan A (2007) DNA damage induced in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by industrial solid waste and municipal sludge leachates. Environ Mol Mutagen 48(1):30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakare A, Alabi O, Gbadebo A, Ogunsuyi O, Alimba C (2013) In vivo cytogenotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by electronic waste leachate and contaminated well water. Challenges 4:169–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck A, Jones K, Hayes M, Mingelgrin U (1993) Organic substances in soil and water: natural constituents and their influences on contaminant behavior. R Soc Chem, Cambridge, p 7Google Scholar
  7. Caravanos J, Clark E, Fuller R, Lambertson C (2011) Assessing worker and environmental chemical exposure risks at an e-waste recycling and disposal site in Accra, Ghana. J Health Pollut 1:16–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Celik T, Aslanturk O (2006) Antimitotic and anti-genotoxic effects of Plantago lanceolata aqueous extract on Allium cepa root tip meristem cells. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 61:693–697Google Scholar
  9. Cortez L, Ching J (2014) Heavy metal concentration of dumpsite soil and accumulation in Zea mays (corn) growing in a closed dumpsite in Manila, Philippines. Int J Environ Sci Dev 5(1):77–80Google Scholar
  10. Dodd G (2010) Heavy metal poisoning and hair analysis. Holist Vet. https://holisticvetpetcare.net/pdf/Heavy_Metal_Posion_Hair_Analysis-2.pdf. Accessed 16 Mar 2017
  11. Eguchi A, Nomiyama K, Devanathan G, Subramanian A, Bulbule K, Parthasarathy P, Takahashi S, Tanabe S (2012) Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India. Environ Int 47:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fiskesjö G (1988) The Allium-test an alternative in environmental studies: the relative toxicity of metal ions. Mutat Res 197:243–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grant W (1982) Chromosome aberration assays in Allium. A report of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program. Mutat Res 99(3):273–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gutierrez R, Agarrado G (2011) The vanishing e-wastes of the Philippines. Ban Toxics. http://bantoxics.org/v2/images/downloads/ewaste_report.pdf. Accessed 16 Mar 2017
  15. Ibitz A (2012) Environmental policy coordination in ASEAN: the case of waste from electrical and electronic equipment. ASEAS – Austrian J South-East Asian Stud 5(1):30–51Google Scholar
  16. Jinhui L, Huabo D, Pixing S (2011) Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis. Waste Manag Res 29(7):727–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li H, Yu L, Sheng G, Fu J, Peng P (2007) Severe PCDD/F and PBDD/F pollution in air around an electronic waste dismantling area in China. Environ Sci Technol 41(16):5641–5646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lundgren K (2012) The global impact of e-waste: addressing the challenge. International Labour Organization. http://ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_196105.pdf. Accessed 16 Mar 2017
  19. Pant D, Joshi D, Upreti M, Kotnala K (2012) Chemical and biological extraction of metals present in e-waste: a hybrid technology. Waste Manag 32(5):979–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Peter O, Eneji I, Ato R (2012) Analysis of heavy metals in human hair using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Am J Anal Chem 3:770–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Prudente M, Ichihashi H, Tatsukawa R (1994) Heavy metal concentrations in sediments from Manila Bay, Philippines and inflowing rivers. Environ Pollut 86(1):83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sharma K, Reutergardh L (2000) Exposure of preschoolers to lead in the Makati area of Metro Manila, the Philippines. Environ Res 83:322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sia Su (2008) Assessing the effect of a dumpsite to groundwater quality in Payatas, Philippines. Am J Environ Sci 4(4):276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sia Su, Martillano K, Alcantara T, Ragragio E, De Jesus J, Hallare A, Ramos G (2009) Assessing heavy metals in the waters, fish and macro invertebrates in Manila Bay, Philippines. J Appl Sci Environ Sanit 4(3):187–195Google Scholar
  25. Solidum J, Solidum G (2010) Assessment and remediation of heavy metals in community tap water from Manila, Philippines. In: International conference on environment science and engineering IPCBEE, vol 32, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  26. Tedesco S, Laughinghouse H (2012) Bioindicator of genotoxicity: the Allium cepa test. In: Srivastava J (ed) Environmental contamination. InTechOpen.  https://doi.org/10.5772/31371
  27. United Nations University (2013) StEP launches interactive world e-WasteMap. U.S. environmental protection. http://unu.edu/media-relations/releases/step-launches-interactive-world-e-waste-map.html#info_. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Accessed 16 Mar 2017
  28. Wang T, Fu J, Wang Y, Liao C, Tao Y, Jiang G (2009) Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area. Environ Pollut 157(8–9):2445–2451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yoshida A, Terazono A, Ballesteros F, Nguyen D, Sukandar S, Kojima M, Sakata S (2016) E-waste recycling processes in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam: a case study of cathode ray tube TVs and monitors. Resour Conserv Recycl 106:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Z, Subida R, Agetano M, Nakatsuka H, Inoguchi N, Watanabe T, Shimbo S, Higashikawa K, Ikeda M (1998) Nonoccupational exposure of adult women in Manila, the Philippines, to lead and cadmium. Sci Total Environ 215:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang W, Hua W, Marie-Odile S (2012) Soil contamination due to e-waste disposal and recycling activities: a review with special focus on China. Pedosphere 22(21):434–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology DepartmentDe La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations