Parametric study of electro-Fenton treatment for real textile wastewater, disposal study and its cost analysis

  • P. Kaur
  • V. K. SangalEmail author
  • J. P. Kushwaha
Original Paper


Treatment of real textile wastewater by electro-Fenton method was investigated using Ti/RuO2 electrodes. The performance of the treatment process was evaluated in terms of %chemical oxidation demand removal; %color removal; and energy consumed, at three electro-Fenton process parameters: current, electrolysis time and ferrous sulfate concentration. To determine the optimum operating conditions, multiple responses optimization based on BoxBehnken design with desirability function was used. The optimum value of parameters were found to be current= 0.32 A, time = 90 min and ferrous sulfate concentration = 0.53 mM. Box–Behnken design suggested the %chemical oxidation demand removal; %color removal; and energy consumed were 100%, 90.30% and 1.27 Wh, respectively at optimized process parameters. The predicted performance parameters agree well with the experimental data. Second-order kinetic model was fitted to the experimental data, at optimum conditions. GC–MS analysis confirmed that dye components were totally eliminated after electro-Fenton treatment of textile effluent. To determined the toxicity of the treated textile effluent bioassay analysis was performed. It was identified that the generated by-products were non-toxic in nature. The total cost to treat the 1 m3 of real textile wastewater by electro-Fenton at optimum conditions was $ 3.13.


Real textile wastewater Electro-Fenton Chemical oxygen demand removal Color removal Response surface methodology Energy consumed 



Authors are thankful to the University Grant Commission (UGC), India, for providing MANF fellowship (MANF-2015-17-PUN-49188) to first author of this article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13762_2018_1696_MOESM1_ESM.xls (44 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 44 kb)


  1. Anderson PW (1961) Localized magnetic states in metals. Phys Rev 124(1):41–53Google Scholar
  2. Asghar A, Raman AAA, Daud WMAW (2015) Advanced oxidation processes for in situ production of hydrogen peroxide/hydroxyl radical for textile wastewater treatment: a review. J Clean Prod 87:826–838Google Scholar
  3. Bansal S, Kushwaha JP, Sangal VK (2013) Electrochemical treatment of reactive black 5 textile wastewater: optimization, kinetics, and disposal study. Water Environ Res 85(12):2294–2306Google Scholar
  4. Bouafia-Chergui S, Oturan N, Khalaf H, Oturan MA (2010) Parametric study on the effect of the ratios [H2O2]/[Fe3+] and [H2O2]/[substrate] on the photo-Fenton degradation of cationic azo dye basic blue 41. J Environ Sci Health A 45(5):622–629Google Scholar
  5. Brillas E, Casado J (2002) Aniline degradation by Electro-Fenton and peroxi-coagulation processes using a flow reactor for wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 47(3):241–248Google Scholar
  6. Brillas E, Sirés I, Oturan MA (2009) Electro-Fenton process and related electrochemical technologies based on Fenton’s reaction chemistry. Chem Rev 109(12):6570–6631Google Scholar
  7. Cañizares P, Martínez F, Jiménez C, Lobato J, Rodrigo MA (2006) Coagulation and electro coagulation of wastes polluted with dyes. Environ Sci Technol 40(20):6418–6424Google Scholar
  8. Chen W, Liu J (2012) The possibility and applicability of coagulation-MBR hybrid system in reclamation of dairy wastewater. Desalination 285:226–231Google Scholar
  9. Deborde M, Von Gunten URS (2008) Reactions of chlorine with inorganic and organic compounds during water treatment—kinetics and mechanisms: a critical review. Water Res 42(1):13–51Google Scholar
  10. Garcia-Segura S, Brillas E (2016) Combustion of textile monoazo, diazo and triazo dyes by solar photoelectro-Fenton: decolorization, kinetics and degradation routes. Appl Catal B Environ 181:681–691Google Scholar
  11. Georgiou D, Melidis P, Aivasidis A (2002) Use of a microbial sensor: inhibition effect of azo reactive dyes on activated sludge. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 25(2):79–83Google Scholar
  12. Ghanbari F, Moradi M (2015) A comparative study of electrocoagulation, electrochemical Fenton, electro-Fenton and peroxi-coagulation for decolorization of real textile wastewater: electrical energy consumption and biodegradability improvement. J Environ Chem Eng 3:499–506Google Scholar
  13. Gregory P (1986) Azo dyes: structure-carcinogenicity relationships. Dyes Pig 7(1):45–56Google Scholar
  14. Kaur P, Kushwaha JP, Sangal VK (2015) Modeling and evaluation of electro-oxidation of dye wastewater using artificial neural networks. RSC Adv 5:34663–34671Google Scholar
  15. Kaur P, Kushwaha JP, Sangal VK (2017) Evaluation and disposability study of actual textile wastewater treatment by electro-oxidation method using Ti/RuO2 anode. Proc Saf Environ Prot 111:13–22Google Scholar
  16. Lin H, Zhang H, Wang X, Wang L, Wu J (2014) Electro-Fenton removal of Orange II in a divided cell: reaction mechanism, degradation pathway and toxicity evolution. Sep Purif Technol 122:533–540Google Scholar
  17. Martinez-Huitle CA, Brillas E (2009) Decontamination of wastewaters containing synthetic organic dyes by electrochemical methods: a general review. Appl Catal B Environ 87(3):105–145Google Scholar
  18. Meric S, Kaptan D, Olmez T (2004) Color and COD removal from wastewater containing reactive black 5 using Fenton’s oxidation process. Chemosphere 54(3):435–441Google Scholar
  19. Nasr B, Abdelatif G, Cañizares P, Saez C, Lobato J, Rodrigo MA (2005) Electrochemical oxidation of hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol on boron-doped diamond anodes. Environ Sci Technol 39(18):7234–7239Google Scholar
  20. Newns DM (1969) Self-consistent model of hydrogen chemisorption. Phys Rev 178(3):1123–1135Google Scholar
  21. Nidheesh PV, Gandhimathi R (2014) Removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution using graphite–graphite electro-Fenton system. Des Water Treat 52(10–12):1872–1877Google Scholar
  22. Olmez T, Kabdasli I, Tunay O (2007) The effect of the textile industry dye bath additive EDTMPA on colour removal characteristics by ozone oxidation. Water Sci Technol 55(10):145–153Google Scholar
  23. Oturan N, Brillas E, Oturan MA (2012) Unprecedented total mineralization of atrazine and cyanuric acid by anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton with a boron-doped diamond anode. Environ Chem Lett 10(2):165–170Google Scholar
  24. Pajootan E, Arami M, Rahimdokht M (2014) Discoloration of wastewater in a continuous electro-Fenton process using modified graphite electrode with multi-walled carbon nanotubes/surfactant. Sep Purif Technol 130:34–44Google Scholar
  25. Phalakornkule C, Polgumhang S, Tongdaung W, Karakat B, Nuyut T (2010) Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent. J Environ Manag 91(4):918–926Google Scholar
  26. Salazar R, Brillas E, Sirés I (2012) Finding the best Fe2+/Cu2+ combination for the solar photoelectro-Fenton treatment of simulated wastewater containing the industrial textile dye disperse blue 3. Appl Catal B Environ 115:107–116Google Scholar
  27. Sandhwar VK, Prasad B (2017) Terephthalic acid removal from aqueous solution by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods: process optimization through response surface methodology. Proc Saf Environ Prot 107:269–280Google Scholar
  28. Sangal VK, Kumar V, Mishra MI (2013) Optimization of a divided wall column for the separation of C4–C6 normal paraffin mixture using Box–Behnken design. Comput Chem Eng 19(1):107–119Google Scholar
  29. Santos ID, Afonso JC, Dutra AJB (2010) Behavior of a Ti/RuO2 anode in concentrated chloride medium for phenol and their chlorinated intermediates electrooxidation. Sep Purif Technol 76(2):151–157Google Scholar
  30. Sirés I, Brillas E (2012) Remediation of water pollution caused by pharmaceutical residues based on electrochemical separation and degradation technologies: a review. Environ Int 40:212–229Google Scholar
  31. Sirés I, Brillas E, Oturan MA, Rodrigo MA, Panizza M (2014) Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow (A review). Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(14):8336–8367Google Scholar
  32. Sun Y, Pignatello JJ (1993) Photochemical reactions involved in the total mineralization of 2,4-D by iron (3+)/hydrogen peroxide/UV. Environ Sci Technol 27(2):304–310Google Scholar
  33. Vlyssides AG, Loizidou M, Karlis PK, Zorpas AA, Papaioannou D (1999) Electrochemical oxidation of a textile dye wastewater using a Pt/Ti electrode. J Hazard Mater B70(1):41–52Google Scholar
  34. Wang A, Qu J, Ru J, Liu H, Ge J (2005) Mineralization of an azo dye acid red 14 by electro-Fenton’s reagent using an activated carbon fiber cathode. Dyes Pig 65(3):227–233Google Scholar
  35. Zhou M, He J (2007) Degradation of azo dye by three clean advanced oxidation processes: wet oxidation, electrochemical oxidation and wet electrochemical oxidation—a comparative study. Electrochim Acta 53(4):1902–1910Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringThapar Institute of Engineering and Technology (Deemed to be University)PatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations