Biosorption of fluoride by water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) from contaminated water

  • Sukalpa Karmakar
  • Joydeep Mukherjee
  • Somnath Mukherjee
Original Paper


Phytoremediation is a proven low-cost and sustainable method for the removal of toxic pollutants from water. This green technology has been practiced for the past several years all over the world. In the present study, the interaction of fluoride on the surface of the floating aquatic plant water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) during fluoride removal was investigated. Batch kinetic studies were performed to examine the fluoride uptake capacity of the plant with different initial fluoride concentrations such as 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L. The effects of various process parameters on fluoride uptake dynamics such as pH, plant biomass, initial fluoride concentration, and time were examined. Freundlich’s isotherm model was found to (R 2 = 0.957) fit well to the experimental data. The nature of reaction order followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, when the initial fluoride level in the solution was 5 mg/L. The experimental findings showed that the removal mechanism was driven by biosorption phenomenon. High fluoride concentration in the solution reduced the growth ratio of P. stratiotes. The lowest growth ratio of this aquatic macrophyte was found to be 76.80 ± 3.73% at 20 mg/L fluoride concentration. At lower fluoride concentrations such as 3 and 5 mg/L, the growth ratio of the plant was not reduced significantly.


Fluoride Growth ratio Isotherm Pistia stratiotes Reaction order Sorption potential 



The authors wish to thank all who assisted in this work.

Supplementary material

13762_2017_1439_MOESM1_ESM.docx (243 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 242 kb)
13762_2017_1439_MOESM2_ESM.docx (203 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 202 kb)


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukalpa Karmakar
    • 1
  • Joydeep Mukherjee
    • 2
  • Somnath Mukherjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Engineering Division, Civil Engineering DepartmentJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.School of Environmental StudiesJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

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