A comparative study on heavy metal content of plants irrigated with tap and wastewater

Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to compare the potential accumulation capacity of Cr, Cu and Zn in Zea mays and Populus deltoides Marsh. The study was conducted in an area in a wastewater treatment plant in Birjand for a period of 120 days. The soil sample and selected parts of Z. mays and P. deltoides Marsh were collected monthly and treated with hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. The results showed that the highest mean concentrations of Cu (1.78 ± 0.93 mg kg−1) and Zn (2.65 ± 1.37 mg kg−1) were observed at Z. mays in September. The results indicated that the concentrations of Cu and Zn in Z. mays and P. deltoides Marsh shoots irrigated with wastewater were higher than tap water. In addition, both the plants comparatively showed a significant increase in total metal amount when treated with wastewater (p < 0.001). The study of BCF and TF demonstrated that Z. mays was suitable for phytoextraction of Cu, but unsuitable for both phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn and Cr, whereas P. deltoides Marsh was unsuitable for both phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn, Cu and Cr.

Keywords

Zea mays Populus deltoides Marsh Phytoextraction Phytostabilization 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors are grateful to the authorities of Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University for their help and providing the funding needed for this research. The reviewers are also appreciated for their constructive criticisms. We would also like to thank Dr. Mrs. Mahavash F. Kavian for English editing of the paper.

References

  1. Akpor OB, Muchie M (2010) Remediation of heavy metals in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems, processes and applications. Int J Phys Sci 51:1807–1817Google Scholar
  2. Blaylock MJ, Salt DE, Dushenkov S, Zakharove O, Gussman C, Kapulnik Y (1997) Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil, applied chelating agents. Environ Sci Technol 31:860–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cardwell AJ, Hawker DW, Greenway M (2002) Metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from southeast Queensland, Australia. Chemosphere 48:653–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ciura J, Poniedzia EM, Sêkara A, Jê- Drszczyk E (2005) The possibility of using drops as metal phytoremediants. Pol J Environ Stud 14:17–37Google Scholar
  5. Ebbs SD, Kochian LV (1997) Toxicity of zinc and copper to Brassica species: implication for phytoremediation. J Environ Qual 26:776–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghosh M, Singh SP (2005) A comparative study of cadmium phytoextraction by accumulator and weed species. Environ Pollut 133:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Khan S, Cao Q, Chen BD, Zhu YG (2006) Humic acids increase the phytoavailability of Cd and Pb to wheat plants cultivated in freshly spiked contaminated soil. J Soil Sediments 6(4):236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kim LS, Kang KH, Green PJ et al. (2003) Investigation of metal accumulation in Polygonumthunbergii for phytoextraction. Environ Pollut 126(2):126–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lasat MM, Pence NS, Garvin DF, Ebbs SD, Kochian LV (2000) Molecular physiology of zinc transport in the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. J Exp Bot 51:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ma LQ, Komar KM, Tu C, Zhang W, Cai Y, Kennelley ED (2001) A fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic. Nature 409:579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Madyiwa S, Chimbari M, Nyamangara J, Bangira C (2002) Cumulative effects of sewage sludge and effluent: mixture application on soil properties of a sandy soil under a mixture of star and kikuyu grasses in Zimbabwe. Phys Chem Earth 27:747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Marchiol L, Assolari S, Sacco P, Zebri G (2004) Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multi-contaminated soil. Environ Pollut 132:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Muchuweti M, Birkett JW, Chinyanga E, Zvauya R, Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN (2006) Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixture of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Padmavathiamma PK, Loretta YLI (2007) Phytoremediation technology: hyper-accumulation metals in plants. Water Air Soil Pollut 184:105–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Radojevic M, Bashkin VN (1999) Practical environmental analysis. Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Sayadi MH, Rezaei MR (2014) Impact of land use on the distribution of toxic metals in surface soils in Birjand city, Iran. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci 4(1):18–29Google Scholar
  17. Sayadi MH, Sayyed MRG, Suyash K (2010) Short-term accumulative signatures’ of heavy metal in river bed sediments, Tehran Iran. Environ Monit Assess 162:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sayyed MRG, Sayadi MH (2011) Variations in the heavy metal accumulations within the surface soils from the Chitgar industrial area of Tehran. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci 1(1):36–46Google Scholar
  19. Schmidt U (2003) Enhancing phytoextraction: the effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals. J Environ Qual 32:1939–1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shabani N, Sayadi MH (2012) Evaluation of heavy metals accumulation by two emergent macrophytes from the polluted soil: an experimental study. Environmentalist 32(1):91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thangavel P, Subhuram CV (2004) Phytoextraction role of hyper accumulators in metal contaminated soils. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad Part B 70(1):109–130Google Scholar
  22. Yanqun Z, Yuan L, Jianjun C, Haiyan C, Li Q, Schvartz C (2005) Hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in herbaceous grown on lead–zinc mining area in Yunnan, China. Environ Int 31:755–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yoon J, Cao X, Zhou Q, Lena QM (2006) Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Sci Total Environ 368:456–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zayed A, Gowthaman S, Terry N (1998) Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants : I. Duckweed. J Environ Qual 27:715–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhao FJ, Hamon RE, Lombi E, Mclaughlin MJ, McGrath SP (2002) Characteristics of cadmium uptake in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. J Exp Bot 53:535–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhao FJ, Lombi E, McGrath SP (2003) Assessing the potential for zinc and cadmium phytoextraction with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant Soil 249:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zojaji F, Hassani AH, Sayadi MH (2014) Bioaccumulation of chromium by Zea mays in wastewater-irrigated soil: an experimental study. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci 4(2):62–67Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences DepartmentUniversity of BirjandBirjandIran

Personalised recommendations