Advertisement

Aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacterial enrichment from municipal solid waste

  • S. Sri Shalini
  • J. Kurian
  • J. W. C. Wong
Original Paper

Abstract

Leachate from the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills contains high concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen that is a major toxic pollutant that has a great threat to environment. Among the processes available for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen, one process is a combination of partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process. It requires aerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria (AnAOB). This paper presents the feasibility of enriching the AOB and AnAOB in 100-mL and 2.5-L batch reactors from fresh and mined MSW and leachate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with varying feed-to-seed ratio. The AOB and AnAOB activity was monitored by measuring the intermediates such as hydroxylamine and hydrazine along with variations in ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen concentrations in the reactor contents. The formation of intermediates such as hydroxylamine and hydrazine and ammoniacal nitrogen transformation data confirmed the enrichment of AOB and AnAOB. Further, AOB and AnAOB were validated by most probable number test and scanning electron microscopy analysis, respectively. DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and sequencing analysis authenticated the AnAOB as Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans.

Keywords

Bacterial enrichment Ammoniacal nitrogen removal Aerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria Anammox bacteria Feed-to-seed ratio Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The support of the All India Council for Technical Education to carry out this study in the form of National Doctoral Fellowship to the corresponding author is gratefully acknowledged. The author wishes to thank Dr. Ammaiyappan Selvam and Dr. Su Yun Xu, Hong Kong Baptist University for their help in the molecular analysis of the bacteria.

Supplementary material

13762_2013_486_MOESM1_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 30 kb)
13762_2013_486_MOESM2_ESM.doc (40 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 39 kb)
13762_2013_486_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (229 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (JPEG 228 kb)
13762_2013_486_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (227 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (JPEG 226 kb)
13762_2013_486_MOESM5_ESM.jpg (190 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (JPEG 190 kb)
13762_2013_486_MOESM6_ESM.jpg (237 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (JPEG 236 kb)

References

  1. Ahn YH (2006) Sustainable nitrogen elimination biotechnologies: a review. Process Biochem 41:1709–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amano T, Yoshinga I, Okada K, Yamagishi T, Ueda S, Obuchi A, Sako Y, Suwa Y (2007) Detection of anammox activity and diversity of anammox bacteria related 16S rRNa genes in coastal marine sediment in Japan. Microbes Environ 22:232–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthonisen AC, Loehr RC, Prakasam TBS, Srinath EG (1976) Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous acid. J WPCF 46:835–852Google Scholar
  4. APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. United Book Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Arrojo B, Mosquera-Corral A, Campos JL, M’endez R (2006) Effects of mechanical stress on anammox granules in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). J Biotechnol 123:453–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behera PK (2006) Solid and solid waste analysis—a laboratory manual, 1st edn. Dominant Publishers, New Delhi, pp 47–50Google Scholar
  7. Berge ND, Reinhart DR, Townsend TG (2005) The fate of nitrogen in bioreactor landfills. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 35:365–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chamchoi N, Nitisoravut S (2007) Anammox enrichment from different conventional sludges. Chemosphere 66:2225–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dapena-Mora A, Campos JL, Mosquerra-Corral A, Jetten MSM, Mendez R (2004) Stability of the ANAMMOX process in a gas—lift reactor and a SBR. J Biotechnol 110:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Egli K, Langer C, Siegrist H-R, Zehnder AJB, Wagner M, van der Meer JR (2003) Community analysis of Ammonia and nitrite oxidisers during start-up of nitritation reactors. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:3213–3222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frear DS, Burrell RC (1955) Spectrophotometric method for determining hydroxylamine reductase activity in higher plants. Anal Chem 27:1664–1665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fux C, Siegrist H (2004) Nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquids by nitrification/denitrification or partial nitritation/anammox: environmental and economic considerations. Water Sci Technol 50:19–26Google Scholar
  13. Fux C, Boehler M, Huber P, Brunner I, Siegrist H (2002) Biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by partial nitritation and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in a pilot plant. J Biotechnol 99:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ganigue R, Lopez H, Balaguer MD, Colprim J (2007) Partial ammonium oxidation to nitrite of high ammonium content urban landfill leachates. Water Resour 41:3317–3326Google Scholar
  15. Ganigue R, Gabarro J, Sanchez-Melsio A, Ruscalleda M, Lopez H, Vila X, Colprim J, Balaguer MD (2009) Long-term operation of a partial pilot plant treating leachate with extreme high ammonium concentration prior to an anammox process. Bioresour Technol 100:5624–5632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guven D, van de Pas-Schoonen K, Schmidt MC, Strous M, Jetten MSM, Sozen S, Orhon D, Schmidt I (2004) Implementation of the anammox process for improved nitrogen removal. J Environ Sci Health Part A Toxic/Hazar Subs Environ Eng A39:1729–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guven D, Kutlu O, Insel G, Sozen S (2009) Model-based process analysis of partial nitrification efficiency under dynamic nitrogen loading. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 32:655–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hellinga C, Schellen AAJC, Mulder JW, Van Lossdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ (1998) The Sharon Process: an innovative method for nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich wastewater. Water Sci Technol 34:135–142Google Scholar
  19. Jetten MSK, Schmid M, Schmidt I, Wubben M, Dongen UV, Abma W et al (2002) Improved nitrogen removal by application of new nitrogen-cycle bacteria. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 1:51–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jin RC, Hu BL, Zheng P, Qaisar M, Hu AH, Islam E (2008) Quantitative comparison of stability of ANAMMOX process in different reactor configurations. Bioresour Technol 99:1603–1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Karthikeyan OP, Swati M, Nagendran R, Joseph K (2007) Performance of bioreactor landfill with waste mined from a dumpsite. Environ Monit Assess 135:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liang Z, Liu JX (2007) Control factors of partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment. J Environ Sci (China) 19:523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liao D, Yang Q, Zhao Z, Zeng G (2007) Enrichment and granulation of Anammox biomass started up with methanogenic granular sludge. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23:1015–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Molinuevo B, Garcia CM, Karakashev D, Angelidaki I (2009) Anammox for ammonia removal from pig manure effluents: effect of organic matter content on process performance. Bioresour Technol 100:2171–2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ni S-Q, Lee P-H, Fessehaie A, Gao B-Y, Sung S (2010) Enrichment and biofilm formation of Anammox bacteria in a non-woven membrane reactor. Bioresour Technol 101:1792–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paredes D, Kuschk P, Mbwette TSA, Stange F, Muller RA, Koser H (2007) New aspects of microbial nitrogen transformations in the context of waste water treatment—a review. Eng Life Sci 7:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peng B, Zhu G (2006) Biological nitrogen removal with nitrification and denitrification via nitrite pathway. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Penton CR, Devol AH, Tiedje JM (2006) Molecular evidence for the broad distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater and marine sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:6829–6832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Reginatto V, Teixera RM, Pereira F, Schmidell W, Furigo A, Menes R et al (2005) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in Bioreactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater. Braz J Chem Eng 22:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarathchandra SU (1979) A simplified method for estimating ammonium oxidising bacteria. Plant Soil 52:305–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shivaraman N, Shivaraman G (2003) ANAMMOX—a novel microbial process for ammonium removal. Curr Sci 84:1507–1508Google Scholar
  32. Sinha B, Annachhatre AP (2007) Assessment of partial nitrification reactor performance through microbial population shift using quinone profile, FISH and SEM. Bioresour Technol 98:3602–3610Google Scholar
  33. Sri Shalini S, Karthikeyan OP, Joseph K (2010) Biological stability of municipal solid waste from simulated landfills under tropical environment. Bioresour Technol 101:845–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Strous S, Heijnen JJ, Kuenen JG, Jetten MSM (1998) The sequencing batch reactor as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidising microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50:589–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van de Graaf AA, Bruijn PD, Robertson LA, Jetten MSM, Kuenen JG (1996) Autotrophic growth of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing microorganisms in a fluidized bed reactor. Microbiology 142:2187–2196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. van Dongen U, Jetten MSM, van Loosdrecht MCM (2001) The Sharon-Anammox process for treatment of ammonium rich wastewater. Water Sci Technol 44:153–160Google Scholar
  37. Wang T, Zhang H, Yang F, Liu S, Fu Z, Chen H (2009) Start up of the ANAMMOX process from the conventional activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 100:2501–2506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Watt GW, Chrisp JD (1952) A spectrophotometric method for the determination of hydrazine. Anal Chem 24:2006–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yang J, Zhang L, Fukuzaki Y, Hira D, Furukawa K (2010) High-rate nitrogen removal by the Anammox process with a sufficient inorganic carbon source. Bioresour Technol 101:9471–9478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang H, Zhou S (2006) Treating leachate mixture with anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology. J Cent South Univ Technol 13:663–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang L, Zheng P, Tang C, Jin R (2008) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 9:416–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Environmental StudiesAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiologyHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations