Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare, poorly understood, progressive and relapsing, steroid-responsive multiform disease. HE presents with subacute cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and movement disorders. The disorder is usually related to thyroid disease and the most frequent feature is the presence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies. Patients are generally euthyroid or mildly hypothyroid. The clinical features of two patients at presentation included refractory seizures and confusion, another patient had behavioral problems and altered cognitive status, one patient presented with right-sided weakness and numbness especially in his leg and tongue, dysphagia, speech disorder, aggressiveness, nightmares and nocturnal enuresis and last patient had focal seizures with altered mental status. All patients manifested increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Four patients improved with steroid treatment, and one of the patients responded to plasmapheresis instead of corticosteroid treatment. Physicians’ awareness of this complication is of great importance because HE is a highly treatable condition among children and adolescents.
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Kutluk, M.G., Haznedar, P., Bektas, O. et al. Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in children: different manifestations of five cases. Acta Neurol Belg 119, 595–599 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-019-01191-7
- Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE)