Synthesis, characterization, in vitro biological and molecular docking evaluation of N,N'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(benzamides)

Abstract

The present research describes the synthesis, characterization, in vitro biological and docking evaluation of N,N'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(benzamides) (3a-3j). Consequently, in in vitro hRBCs hemolysis assay, only the bis-amide (3d) induced 52.4% hemolysis at higher concentration (1000 μg/mL) that decreased drastically with concentration (250 μg/mL) to 27.9% (CC50 = 400.41). Similarly, the tested bis-amide (3j) was found to be the least toxic with 7.8% hemolysis at higher concentration (1000 μg/mL) that gradually decreases to 6.1% (CC50 = 19,347.83) at lower concentration (250 μg/mL). Accordingly, the tested bis-amides were found to be highly biocompatible against hRBCs at higher concentrations with much higher CC50 values (> 1000 μg/mL). The biocompatible bis-amides (3a-3j) were subjected to in vitro DNA ladder assay to analyze their apoptotic potential. The results obtained suggest the tested bis-amides (3a-3j) are highly degradative toward DNA causing the appearance of more than one bands or complete degradation of DNA except (3a), (3c), (3i) and (3 g). Moreover, the synthesized bis-amides (3a-3j) were tested in in vitro antileishmanial assay to unveil their leishmaniacidal potential. The results obtained clearly indicated that some of the tested bis-amides displayed good dose dependent response. The tested bis-amides were highly active at higher concentration (1000 μg/mL) against the leishmanial promastigotes and their % inhibitory potential decreased drastically with concentration (250 μg/mL). Consequently, at higher concentration (1000 μg/mL), the bis-amide (3f) caused 85% inhibition and was ranked as the most effective leishmaniacidal bis-amides followed by the bis-amide (3 g) with 73.54% inhibition of leishmanial promastigotes. However, in terms of their IC50 values, the best leishmaniacidal potential was displayed by the bis-amide (3f) followed by (3b), (3j) and (3 g) with IC50 values increasing in the order of 633.16, 680.22, 680.22 and 712.93 μg/mL, respectively. Molecular docking studies revealed that bis-amides having electron-donating groups showed good binding potential against antileishmanial target.

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Acknowledgements

The author Mr. Hamid Aziz gratefully acknowledges an Indigenous scholarship from Higher Education Commission of Pakistan as a financial support for the research work performed.

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Aziz, H., Saeed, A., Jabeen, F. et al. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro biological and molecular docking evaluation of N,N'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(benzamides). J IRAN CHEM SOC (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-021-02199-8

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Keywords

  • Agarose gel electrophoresis
  • Apoptosis
  • Biocompatibility
  • Bis-amides
  • DNA
  • Leishmania tropica
  • Promastigotes
  • Human red blood cells