The oxidative stability such as induction time (IT), conjugated diene (CD), conjugated triene (CT) and trans fatty acid (TFA) of sunflower oil added β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene was evaluated by using an experimental design technique. Oil samples with and without lutein, β-carotene, and lycopene were prepared according to central composite design (CCD). To examine the effects of β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene, CCD was applied at different five levels (− 1.68, − 1, 0, 1, 1.68). The obtained results demonstrated that carotenoid types and amounts were very effective in change IT, CD, CT, and TFA formation of sunflower oil. The increase in the lutein amounts decreased the IT and increased the CD and CT of the oil although the addition of the lutein at low concentrations showed increase in TFA formation. The results revealed that β-carotene and lycopene in oil samples were the most effective factor for the resistance to oxidation of the oil.
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This study was supported by Selcuk University Coordinators of Scientific Research with SU-BAP 17401050 project numbers. The authors wish to thank the principal of Selcuk University and Scientific Research Projects Coordination.
Conflict of Interest
The authors would like to certify that the work described has not been published previously and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Furthermore, authors have no any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal, or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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Topkafa, M., Ayyildiz, H.F. & Kara, H. Impact of carotenoids on the oxidative stability and trans fatty acid content of sunflower oil by using central composite design. J IRAN CHEM SOC (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-021-02186-z
- Central composite design (CCD)
- Induction time
- Conjugated diene
- Conjugated triene
- Trans fatty acid
- Sunflower oil