Hollow fiber coated Fe3O4@Maleamic acid-functionalized graphene oxide as a sorbent for stir bar sorptive extraction of ibuprofen, aspirin, and venlafaxine in human urine samples before determining by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

Abstract

The present work proposes the application of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of trace levels of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor drugs (Ibuprofen, Aspirin, and Venlafaxine) in human urine samples. In the method, a new and simple device for the SBSE procedure was prepared using a hollow fiber and Fe wire into the HF lumen. A new sorbent (Fe3O4@Maleamic acid-functionalized graphene oxide) was synthesized and ultrasonically penetrated in the outer surface pores of the HF in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-140). Effective main factors on the SBSE procedure were optimized by the design of experiment approach. The proposed analytical methodology demonstrated suitable detection limits (≤ 0.12 ng mL−1), high preconcentration factor (≥ 238), and wide linear dynamic ranges with excellent determination coefficients higher than 0.9971 for the measurement of the analytes. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) for the determination of the drugs were lower than 2.63 and 4.73%, respectively. Assays of the human urine samples were shown the average recoveries between 97.2 and 103% for all drugs with RSDs lower than 4.57% under the optimum extraction conditions. The methodology has high advantages such as cheapness, fastness, low solvent desorption, high recovery, and no memory effect with good recoveries and proper RSDs for the determination of the ibuprofen, aspirin, and venlafaxine in human urine samples.

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Acknowledgements

The Azad University of Mashhad is appreciated for providing the laboratory space, and also thank Dr. Morteza Mohammadi, Parinaz Mohammadi and Dr. Majid Keshavrzi for their scientific support.

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Correspondence to Mahboubeh Masrournia.

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Mohammadi, P., Masrournia, M., Es’haghi, Z. et al. Hollow fiber coated Fe3O4@Maleamic acid-functionalized graphene oxide as a sorbent for stir bar sorptive extraction of ibuprofen, aspirin, and venlafaxine in human urine samples before determining by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J IRAN CHEM SOC (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-021-02185-0

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Keywords

  • Stir bar sorptive extraction
  • Hollow fiber
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • Ibuprofen
  • Aspirin
  • Venlafaxine
  • Human urine sample