Dispersive solid phase extraction based on simply prepared nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon nanocomposite combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction: application in the extraction of some pesticides from fruit juices


In the present survey, a nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon nanocomposite has been prepared simply and eco-friendly from heating an acidic solution of sorbitol and urea. It was used as an efficient sorbent in dispersive solid phase extraction for the extraction of some pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diniconazole, clodinafop–propargyl, oxadiazon, fenpropathrin and penconazole) from fruit juice samples. The method was followed by a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction procedure for more preconcentration of the analytes. The extracted analytes were determined by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection. Under optimized experimental conditions, relative standard deviations were in the ranges of 3–5% and 5–7% for intra-day (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 4) precisions, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg L−1 for each analyte. The limits of detection and quantification were in the ranges of 0.89–1.3 and 3.0–4.3 μg  L−1, respectively. The linear ranges were achieved in the range of 3.0–2000 μg L−1. Also, enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were obtained in the ranges of 380–455 and 76–91%, respectively. Finally, the developed approach was performed to determine the studied pesticide residues in various fruit juices including pomegranate, sour cherry, grape, orange and apple.

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Amorphous carbon nanocomposite


Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction


Dispersive solid phase extraction

EF :

Enrichment factor

ER :

Extraction recovery


Flame ionization detector

GC :

Gas chromatography


Limit of detection


Limit of quantification


Solid phase extraction


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The authors thank the Research Council of University of Tabriz for financial support.


Mir Ali Farajzadeh has received research grants from University of Tabriz.

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Correspondence to Mir Ali Farajzadeh.

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Farajzadeh, M.A., Davaran, M., Mohebbi, A. et al. Dispersive solid phase extraction based on simply prepared nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon nanocomposite combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction: application in the extraction of some pesticides from fruit juices. J IRAN CHEM SOC (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-021-02180-5

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  • Dispersive solid phase extraction
  • Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction
  • Fruit juice
  • Gas chromatography
  • Pesticide
  • Nanocomposite