Effect of pore architecture on osteoblast adhesion and proliferation on hydroxyapatite/poly(D,L) lactic acid-based bone scaffolds
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The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with an optimal pore architecture (e.g., pore size and porosity) that effectively promotes cellular activity on scaffold surfaces is of great interest in bone tissue engineering. In this work, three various 3D hydroxyapatite/poly(D,L)-lactic acid (HAp/PDLLA) scaffolds with different values of HAp to PDLLA in weight percent (0, 10, and 30%) were fabricated by applying a solvent casting–particulate leaching technique. Chloroform was used as a casting solvent to investigate the effects of pore architecture on cellular adhesion, distribution, and proliferation on the fabricated scaffolds. These scaffolds were characterized through field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and liquid substitution to determine their structure, morphological characteristics, pore sizes, and porosity. Cell proliferation, adhesion, and distribution on these scaffolds were evaluated through in vitro tests with human osteoblast MG 63 cell line. Results showed that pore size and porosity greatly affected the proliferation, adhesion, and distribution of MG 63 cells on the fabricated scaffolds. Mean pore sizes ranging from 177 to 245 µm and porosities varying from 76 to 83% were optimal for cell proliferation and adhesion on these scaffolds. Among the fabricated scaffolds, 3D HAp/PDLLA scaffolds with 10% (m/m) HAp to PDLLA exhibited the highest cell adhesion and good cell proliferation capabilities and formed a well-organized cytoskeleton architecture after 7 days of culture. Hence, 3D HAp/PDLLA scaffolds as biomaterials showed potential for bone tissue applications.
KeywordsBone scaffold Pore architecture Cellular adhesion Cellular proliferation
This study was funded by the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under Grant Number 104.03-2015.25.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.