Learning hierarchical video representation for action recognition

Abstract

Video analysis is an important branch of computer vision due to its wide applications, ranging from video surveillance, video indexing, and retrieval to human computer interaction. All of the applications are based on a good video representation, which encodes video content into a feature vector with fixed length. Most existing methods treat video as a flat image sequence, but from our observations we argue that video is an information-intensive media with intrinsic hierarchical structure, which is largely ignored by previous approaches. Therefore, in this work, we represent the hierarchical structure of video with multiple granularities including, from short to long, single frame, consecutive frames (motion), short clip, and the entire video. Furthermore, we propose a novel deep learning framework to model each granularity individually. Specifically, we model the frame and motion granularities with 2D convolutional neural networks and model the clip and video granularities with 3D convolutional neural networks. Long Short-Term Memory networks are applied on the frame, motion, and clip to further exploit the long-term temporal clues. Consequently, the whole framework utilizes multi-stream CNNs to learn a hierarchical representation that captures spatial and temporal information of video. To validate its effectiveness in video analysis, we apply this video representation to action recognition task. We adopt a distribution-based fusion strategy to combine the decision scores from all the granularities, which are obtained by using a softmax layer on the top of each stream. We conduct extensive experiments on three action benchmarks (UCF101, HMDB51, and CCV) and achieve competitive performance against several state-of-the-art methods.

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Correspondence to Qing Li.

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Li, Q., Qiu, Z., Yao, T. et al. Learning hierarchical video representation for action recognition. Int J Multimed Info Retr 6, 85–98 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13735-016-0117-4

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Keywords

  • Video representation learning
  • Action recognition
  • Deep learning