Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 307–318 | Cite as

Phosphorylated cardanol prepolymer grafted guayule natural rubber: an advantageous green natural rubber

  • Sawar Dhanania
  • Denial Mahata
  • Onkar Prabhavale
  • Katrina Cornish
  • Golok B. Nando
  • Santanu Chattopadhyay
Original Research
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Natural rubber (HNR), produced from Hevea Brasiliensis, is being considered as the major source of 99.9% 1,4-cis-polyisoprene. Till date, this grade of natural rubber is not manufactured synthetically even using sophisticated solution polymerization techniques and utilizing the most advanced catalyst systems. Rubber industries have been continuously thriving for an alternative as well as an additional source of natural rubber to compensate for the reduction in production of Hevea natural rubber and to reduce the consumption of petroleum-based rubbers. The present study deals with chemical grafting of phosphorylated cardanol prepolymer (PCP) onto the main chain of guayule natural rubber (GNR), which could impart inherent multifunctional characteristics to the rubber. The grafting of PCP onto GNR was carried out successively using benzoyl peroxide as a free radical initiator in the solution stage and the grafting parameters have been optimized through the Taguchi method using grafting efficiency and percent grafting. Grafting of PCP onto GNR (PCP-g-GNR) was confirmed through UV–Visible, FTIR, NMR and GPC analysis. Thermal behavior of PCP-g-GNR indicates a significant increase in thermo-oxidative stability and it also displays a slight depression of glass transition temperature as compared to GNR. The viscoelastic characteristics of GNR also alter and cure characteristic improves drastically in giving rise to improved processability after grafting of the PCP. The unfilled PCP-g-GNR vulcanizates show approximately similar physico-mechanical properties with 5 phr processing oil as plasticized GNR vulcanizates. Therefore, PCP-g-GNR can be used in rubber industries as gum rubber materials as it reduces the usage of processing aids significantly.

Keywords

Guayule natural rubber Phosphorylated cardanol prepolymer Chemical grafting Processing aids Viscoelasticity 

Supplementary material

13726_2018_611_MOESM1_ESM.docx (358 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 358 kb)

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Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sawar Dhanania
    • 1
  • Denial Mahata
    • 1
  • Onkar Prabhavale
    • 1
  • Katrina Cornish
    • 2
  • Golok B. Nando
    • 1
  • Santanu Chattopadhyay
    • 1
  1. 1.Rubber Technology CentreIIT KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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