Skip to main content

Efficacy of Dietary Manipulations for Depleting Intrahepatic Triglyceride Content: Implications for the Management of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease


Purpose of Review

Understanding the effects of dietary manipulations on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) balance will have important implications for the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Recent Findings

Reducing calorie intake to induce weight loss is the most potent intervention to decrease IHTG. Carbohydrate restriction during the initial stages of weight loss may be particularly beneficial, but at later stages, the amount of weight loss predominates over diet composition. By contrast, during weight stability, restricting calories from fat seems to be optimal for depleting liver fat. The degree of dietary fat saturation and the glycemic index of the carbohydrate have inconsistent effects on IHTG. Recently, the matrix of some foods (e.g., dairy) has been inversely associated with NAFLD.


Dietary macronutrients differ in their effects on liver fat depending on the energy balance and the matrix of the food in which they are consumed. Therefore, investigations into dietary approaches for managing NAFLD should shift their perspective from that of isolated nutrients to that of whole foods and diets and include useful mechanistic insights.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2



Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


Intrahepatic triglyceride


Body mass index


Glycemic index


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Saturated fatty acids


Monounsaturated fatty acids


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.

    Marchesini G, Day CP, Dufour JF, Canbay A, Nobili V, Ratziu V, et al. EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol. 2016;64:1388–402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Younossi ZM, Koenig AB, Abdelatif D, Fazel Y, Henry L, Wymer M. Global Epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes. Hepatology. 2016;64:73–84.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Buzzetti E, Pinzani M, Tsochatzis EA. The multiple-hit pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metabolism. 2016;65:1038–48.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Wilman HR, Kelly M, Jandor A, Bell J, Banerjee R, Thomas L. Characterisation of liver fat in the UK biobank cohort. J Hepatol. 2017;66:S242–S3.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    • Stefan N, Haring HU, Cusi K. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: causes, diagnosis, cardiometabolic consequences, and treatment strategies. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7:313–24. state-of-the-art review highlighting the need for multidisciplinary approaches in the management of NAFLD.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Fabbrini E, Magkos F, Mohammed BS, Pietka T, Abumrad NA, Patterson BW, et al. Intrahepatic fat, not visceral fat, is linked with metabolic complications of obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15430–5.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Bugianesi E, Lenzi M, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2001;50:1844–50.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ding C, Chan ZL, Chooi YC, Choo J, Sadananthan SA, Chang A, et al. Regulation of glucose metabolism in nondiabetic, metabolically obese normal-weight Asians. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018;314:E494–502.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Magkos F, Fraterrigo G, Yoshino J, Luecking C, Kirbach K, Kelly SC, et al. Effects of moderate and subsequent progressive weight loss on metabolic function and adipose tissue biology in humans with obesity. Cell Metab. 2016;23:591–601.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Chooi YC, Ding C, Chan ZL, Choo J, Sadananthan SA, Michael N, et al. Moderate weight loss improves body composition and metabolic function in metabolically unhealthy lean subjects. Obesity. 2018;26:1000–7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kirk E, Reeds DN, Finck BN, Mayurranjan SM, Patterson BW, Klein S. Dietary fat and carbohydrates differentially alter insulin sensitivity during caloric restriction. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1552–60.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Promrat K, Kleiner DE, Niemeier HM, Jackvony E, Kearns M, Wands JR, et al. Randomized controlled trial testing the effects of weight loss on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2010;51:121–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Haufe S, Engeli S, Kast P, Bohnke J, Utz W, Haas V, et al. Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects. Hepatology. 2011;53:1504–14.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    • Xu CC, Markova M, Seebeck N, Loft A, Hornemann S, Gantert T, et al. High-protein diet more effectively reduces hepatic fat than low-protein diet despite lower autophagy and FGF21 levels. Liver Int. 2020;40:2982–97. prospective cohort study in patients with morbid obesity who were randomized to hypocaloric diets with various protein and carbohydrate contents for three weeks prior to undergoing bariatric surgery.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    •• Luukkonen PK, Dufour S, Lyu K, Zhang XM, Hakkarainen A, Lehtimaki TE, et al. Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117:7347–54. short-term feeding trial in which subjects with overweight or obesity consumed a hypocaloric ketogenic diet during 6 days. A variety of state-of-the art technqieues were used to delineate how changes in substrate flux, hormone availability, and enzyme activity contribute to the reduction in liver fat with a ketogenic diet.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    •• Yoshino M, Kayser BD, Yoshino J, Stein RI, Reeds D, Eagon JC, et al. Effects of diet versus gastric bypass on metabolic function in diabetes. New Engl J Med. 2020;383:721–32. prospective study in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes who lost the same amount of body weight by gastric bypass surgery or diet alone. Results demonstrate widespread beneficial effects of massive weight loss on body composition, fat distribution, and metabolic function, which were of the same magnitude regardless of the weight loss method.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Marchesini G, Petta S, Dalle GR. Diet, weight loss, and liver health in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Pathophysiology, evidence, and practice. Hepatology. 2016;63:2032–43.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bray GA, Ryan DH, Johnson W, Champagne CM, Johnson CM, Rood J, et al. Markers of dietary protein intake are associated with successful weight loss in the POUNDS Lost trial. Clin Obes. 2017;7:166–75.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Greenberg I, Stampfer MJ, Schwarzfuchs D, Shai I, Group D. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT). J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28:159–68.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Curioni CC, Lourenco PM. Long-term weight loss after diet and exercise: a systematic review. Int J Obes. 2005;29:1168–74.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    • Magkos F. The role of dietary protein in obesity. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2020;21:329–40. review of the role of dietary protein in body weight homeostasis concluding that dietary adherence, rather than macronutrient composition, is more important when it comes to long-term weight management.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Fabbrini E, Yoshino J, Yoshino M, Magkos F, Luecking CT, Samovski D, et al. Metabolically normal obese people are protected from adverse effects following weight gain. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:787–95.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Luukkonen PK, Sadevirta S, Zhou Y, Kayser B, Ali A, Ahonen L, et al. Saturated fat is more metabolically harmful for the human liver than unsaturated fat or simple sugars. Diabetes Care. 2018;41:1732–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rosqvist F, Iggman D, Kullberg J, Cedernaes J, Johansson HE, Larsson A, et al. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans. Diabetes. 2014;63:2356–68.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    •• Rosqvist F, Kullberg J, Stahlman M, Cedernaes J, Heurling K, Johansson HE, et al. Overeating saturated fat promotes fatty liver and ceramides compared with polyunsaturated fat: A randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019;104:6207–19. parallel randomized study investigating the metabolic effects of hypercaloric SFA-rich or PUFA-rich diets for eight weeks in subjects with overweight or obesity. Despite similar weight gain, overeating SFA had differential effects on liver fat content, liver enzymes, and blood lipid profile than overeating PUFA.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Bjermo H, Iggman D, Kullberg J, Dahlman I, Johansson L, Persson L, et al. Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:1003–12.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Westerbacka J, Lammi K, Hakkinen AM, Rissanen A, Salminen I, Aro A, et al. Dietary fat content modifies liver fat in overweight nondiabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:2804–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    van Herpen NA, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Schaart G, Mensink RP, Schrauwen P. Three weeks on a high-fat diet increases intrahepatic lipid accumulation and decreases metabolic flexibility in healthy overweight men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E691–5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Utzschneider KM, Bayer-Carter JL, Arbuckle MD, Tidwell JM, Richards TL, Craft S. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1096–104.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Bozzetto L, Prinster A, Annuzzi G, Costagliola L, Mangione A, Vitelli A, et al. Liver fat is reduced by an isoenergetic MUFA diet in a controlled randomized study in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1429–35.

  31. 31.

    Bortolotti M, Maiolo E, Corazza M, Van Dijke E, Schneiter P, Boss A, et al. Effects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patients. Clin Nutr. 2011;30:494–8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    •• Skytte MJ, Samkani A, Petersen AD, Thomsen MN, Astrup A, Chabanova E, et al. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2019;62:2066–78. randomized cross-over study that examined the effects of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet compared with a conventional diabetes diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes. After six weeks, the high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet improved glycemic control and decreased liver fat.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Markova M, Pivovarova O, Hornemann S, Sucher S, Frahnow T, Wegner K, et al. Isocaloric diets high in animal or plant protein reduce liver fat and inflammation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Gastroenterology. 2017;152:571–85 e8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    •• Mardinoglu A, Wu H, Bjornson E, Zhang C, Hakkarainen A, Rasanen SM, et al. An integrated understanding of the rapid metabolic benefits of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on hepatic steatosis in humans. Cell Metab. 2018;27:559–71. short-term feeding trial in subjects with obesity and NAFLD who consumed a eucaloric, extremly low-carbohydrate diet during 2 weeks. A combination of multi-omics approaches were used to investigate the mechanisms by which carbohydrate-restricted diets decrease liver fat.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Bawden S, Stephenson M, Falcone Y, Lingaya M, Ciampi E, Hunter K, et al. Increased liver fat and glycogen stores after consumption of high versus low glycaemic index food: A randomized crossover study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017;19:70–7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    • Parker A, Kim Y. The effect of low glycemic index and glycemic load diets on hepatic fat mass, insulin resistance, and blood lipid panels in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2019;17:389–96. A review paper evaluating the effect of low GI and glycemic load diets on liver fat and other health outcomes in individuals with NAFLD.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Maersk M, Belza A, Stodkilde-Jorgensen H, Ringgaard S, Chabanova E, Thomsen H, et al. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:283–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Schwarz JM, Noworolski SM, Wen MJ, Dyachenko A, Prior JL, Weinberg ME, et al. Effect of a high-fructose weight-maintaining diet on lipogenesis and liver fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:2434–42.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Scorletti E, Bhatia L, McCormick KG, Clough GF, Nash K, Hodson L, et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the Welcome* study. Hepatology. 2014;60:1211–21.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Vega GL, Chandalia M, Szczepaniak LS, Grundy SM. Effects of N-3 fatty acids on hepatic triglyceride content in humans. J Investig Med. 2008;56:780–5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Argo CK, Patrie JT, Lackner C, Henry TD, de Lange EE, Weltman AL, et al. Effects of n-3 fish oil on metabolic and histological parameters in NASH: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Hepatol. 2015;62:190–7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Cussons AJ, Watts GF, Mori TA, Stuckey BG. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial employing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3842–8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Dasarathy S, Dasarathy J, Khiyami A, Yerian L, Hawkins C, Sargent R, et al. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of omega 3 fatty acids for the treatment of diabetic patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015;49:137–44.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Oscarsson J, Onnerhag K, Riserus U, Sunden M, Johansson L, Jansson PA, et al. Effects of free omega-3 carboxylic acids and fenofibrate on liver fat content in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Lipidol. 2018;12:1390–403 e4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Nogueira MA, Oliveira CP, Ferreira Alves VA, Stefano JT, Rodrigues LS, Torrinhas RS, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2016;35:578–86.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Errazuriz I, Dube S, Slama M, Visentin R, Nayar S, O'Connor H, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a MUFA or fiber-rich diet on hepatic fat in prediabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:1765–74.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Ryan MC, Itsiopoulos C, Thodis T, Ward G, Trost N, Hofferberth S, et al. The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol. 2013;59:138–43.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Zelber-Sagi S, Salomone F, Mlynarsky L. The Mediterranean dietary pattern as the diet of choice for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: evidence and plausible mechanisms. Liver Int. 2017;37:936–49.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    • Astrup A, Magkos F, Bier DM, Brenna JT, de Oliveira Otto MC, Hill JO, et al. Saturated fats and health: a reassessment and proposal for food-based recommendations: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;76:844–57. expert panel paper emphasizing the need for a shift in the current paradigm of macronutrient-based dietary guidelines to whole food-based or dietary pattern-based recommendations.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Feeney EL, McKinley MC. The dairy food matrix: what it is and what it does. In: Givens DI, editor. Milk and Dairy Foods - Their Functionality in Human Health and Disease. London: Elsevier Academic Press; 2020. p. 205–25.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Fernandez MA, Panahi S, Daniel N, Tremblay A, Marette A. Yogurt and cardiometabolic diseases: a critical review of potential mechanisms. Adv Nutr. 2017;8:812–29.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    • Astrup A, Geiker NRW, Magkos F. Effects of full-fat and fermented dairy products on cardiometabolic disease: food is more than the sum of its parts. Adv Nutr. 2019;10:924S–30S. review of the health effects of full-fat dairy products, underscoring the importance of the food matrix in modulating the biological effects of dietary fat.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    • Donovan SM, Goulet O. Introduction to the sixth global summit on the health effects of yogurt: Yogurt, more than the sum of its parts. Adv Nutr. 2019;10:913S–6S. review of the health effects of yogurt, concluding these are more likely linked to its complex food matrix rather than to any individual nutrient.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Thorning TK, Bertram HC, Bonjour JP, de Groot L, Dupont D, Feeney E, et al. Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105:1033–45.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    • Mozaffarian D. Dairy foods, obesity, and metabolic health: the role of the food matrix compared with single nutrients. Adv Nutr. 2019;10:917S–23S. review that stresses the need for holistic dietary recommendations focusing on whole foods and overall dietary patterns rather than isolated nutrients.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    •• Geiker NRW, Molgaard C, Iuliano S, Rizzoli R, Manios Y, van Loon LJC, et al. Impact of whole dairy matrix on musculoskeletal health and aging-current knowledge and research gaps. Osteoporos Int. 2020;31:601–15. report from an expert workshop on dairy food matrix and musculoskeletal health. The authors conclude that the complex matrix, more than the sum of nutrients in dairy foods, favorably affects bone and muscle health, once again underlining the need for shifting to food-based dietary guidelines.

  57. 57.

    Watzinger C, Nonnenmacher T, Grafetstatter M, Sowah SA, Ulrich CM, Kauczor HU, et al. Dietary factors in relation to liver fat content: a cross-sectional study. Nutrients. 2020;12:825.

    CAS  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    • van Eekelen E, Geelen A, Alssema M, Lamb HJ, de Roos A, Rosendaal FR, et al. Sweet snacks are positively and fruits and vegetables are negatively associated with visceral or liver fat content in middle-aged men and women. J Nutr. 2019;149:304–13. population-based cross-sectional study investigating the associations between habitual intake of specific food groups and body fat distribution, demonstrating that dietary intake of sweet snacks is positively associated with liver fat, whereas intake of dairy foods, fruits and vegetables is negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue and liver fat accumulation.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    • Zhang SM, Fu JZ, Zhang Q, Liu L, Lu M, Meng G, et al. Association between habitual yogurt consumption and newly diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020;74:491–9. large cross-sectional survey demonstrating an inverse and dose-dependent association between yogurt consumption and the prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Shi L, Liu ZW, Li Y, Gong C, Zhang H, Song LJ, et al. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with lifestyle/dietary habits among university faculty and staff in Chengdu. Biomed Environ Sci. 2012;25:383–91.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Hamad EM, Taha SH, Abou Dawood AGI, Sitohy MZ, Abdel-Hamid M. Protective effect of whey proteins against nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:57.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Liisberg U, Myrmel LS, Fjaere E, Ronnevik AK, Bjelland S, Fauske KR, et al. The protein source determines the potential of high protein diets to attenuate obesity development in C57BL/6 J mice. Adipocyte. 2016;5:196–211.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Higurashi S, Ogawa A, Nara TY, Kato K, Kadooka Y. Cheese consumption prevents fat accumulation in the liver and improves serum lipid parameters in rats fed a high-fat diet. Dairy Sci Technol. 2016;96:539–49.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    •• Chen Y, Feng R, Yang X, Dai J, Huang M, Ji X, et al. Yogurt improves insulin resistance and liver fat in obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109:1611–9. randomized controlled trial in women with NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome, evaluating the metabolic effects of consumption of conventional yogurt and milk. Results illustrate how the different food matrix of different dairy products can differentially affect health outcomes.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    • Aguilera JM. The food matrix: implications in processing, nutrition and health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59:3612–29. review paper discussing food matrix but also the importance of processing in altering the matrix of foods and thereby modulating their health effects.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Faidon Magkos.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of Interest

Dr Grønbæk has received research grants from Abbvie, Intercept, ADS AIPHIA Development Services AG, the NOVO Nordisk Foundation, and Arla Food for Health. Drs Geiker and Magkos have received research grants from Arla Food for Health (also used to fund Mrs Sandby’s PhD studentship).

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Metabolism

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sandby, K., Geiker, N.R.W., Dalamaga, M. et al. Efficacy of Dietary Manipulations for Depleting Intrahepatic Triglyceride Content: Implications for the Management of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Curr Obes Rep 10, 125–133 (2021).

Download citation


  • Diet composition
  • Energy balance
  • Food matrix
  • Macronutrients
  • Weight loss