Medical Transition for Gender Diverse Patients


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of gender-affirming hormone therapy, including the various hormone regimens available, the efficacy and potential risks of these treatments, and considerations for surveillance and long-term care.

Recent Findings

Recent studies reaffirm that hormone therapy has positive physical and psychological effects for many transgender individuals. The overall risks of treatment are low. Transgender women may have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and breast cancer based on recent cohort studies, but these findings have yet to be confirmed with randomized controlled trials. Important long-term considerations include metabolic, cardiovascular, and skeletal health.


High-quality, long-term studies on the effectiveness and safety of various gender-affirming hormone treatment regimens are lacking, but the currently available evidence suggests that it is overall safe and effective with appropriate oversight.

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Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Correspondence to Molly B. Moravek.

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Fortin, C.N., Moravek, M.B. Medical Transition for Gender Diverse Patients. Curr Obstet Gynecol Rep (2020).

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  • Transgender
  • Hormone therapy
  • Gender-affirming treatment