Clary sage essential oil and its biological activities

Abstract

Salvia sclarea or “clary sage” is an aromatic plant that is used for various ailments especially among the women. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the biological activities of clary sage oil with emphasis on its application in women health. The information of this study was extracted by key words of clary sage, S. sclarea, biological activities in references books and electronic resources. The results of investigation exhibited that the chemical composition of clary sage influenced from various ecological, geographical and environmental conditions, but linalool and linalyl acetate is known as main components of clary sage oil. Clary sage oil is used in aromatherapy for women during the menstrual cycle, childbirth and menopause. The modern clinical investigations confirmed the efficacy of clary sage oil as anti-stress, anti-depression and analgesic agents in primary dysmenorrhea. The anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of clary sage have been confirmed. Furthermore, clary sage oil is known as safe oil with no adverse effects. Designing the large clinical study to evaluate the oral efficacy of clary sage oil for women ailments is essential for future studies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Ali B, Al-Wabel NA, Shams S, Ahamad A, Khan SA, Anwar F (2015) Essential oils used in aromatherapy: a systemic review. Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed 5(8):601–611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bailey JA, Carter GA, Burden RS, Wain RL (1975) Control of rust diseases by diterpenes from Nicotiana glutinosa. Nature 255:328. https://doi.org/10.1038/255328a0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Banthorpe DV, Brown JT, Morris GS (1990) Accumulation of the anti-fungal diterpene sclareol by cell cultures of Salvia sclarea and Nicotiana glutinosa. Phytochemistry 29(7):2145–2148. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(90)83025-V

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Baytop T (1984) Therapy with medicinal plants (past and present), vol 3255. Istan-bul University Publications, Istanbul

    Google Scholar 

  5. Ben Taarit M, Msaada K, Hosni K, Marzouk B (2011) Physiological changes and essential oil composition of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) rosette leaves as affected by salinity. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33(1):153–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-010-0532-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ben Taârit M, Msaada K, Hosni K, Marzouk B (2012) Fatty acids, phenolic changes and antioxidant activity of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) rosette leaves grown under saline conditions. Ind Crops Prod 38:58–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.01.002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Blasko A, Gazdag Z, Grof P, Mate G, Sarosi S, Krisch J, Vagvolgyi C, Makszin L, Pesti M (2017) Effects of clary sage oil and its main components, linalool and linalyl acetate, on the plasma membrane of Candida albicans: an in vivo EPR study. Apoptosis Int J Program Cell Death 22(2):175–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10495-016-1321-7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Burns E, Blamey C (1994) Soothing scents in childbirth. Int J Aromather 6(1):24–28

    Google Scholar 

  9. Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, Lloyd AJ, Barnetson L (2000a) The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice an observational study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 6(1):33–34. https://doi.org/10.1054/ctnm.1999.0901

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Burns E, Blamey C, Lloyd A (2000b) Aromatherapy in childbirth: an effective approach to care. Br J Midwifery 8:639–643. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2000.8.10.8065

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cai J, Lin P, Zhu X, Su Q (2006) Comparative analysis of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) oil volatiles by GC–FTIR and GC–MS. Food Chem 99(2):401–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.041

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Caissard JC, Olivier T, Delbecque C, Palle S, Garry PP, Audran A, Valot N, Moja S, Nicole F, Magnard JL, Legrand S, Baudino S, Jullien F (2012) Extracellular localization of the diterpene sclareol in clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae). PLoS ONE 7(10):e48253. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048253

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Durgha H, Thirugnanasampandan R, Ramya G, Ramanth MG (2016) Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression (iNOS) and cytotoxic activity of Salvia sclarea L. essential oil. J King Saud Univ Sci 28(4):390–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2015.11.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Elnir O, Putievsky E, Ravid U, Dudai N, Ladizinsky G (1991) Genetic affinity between two chemotypes of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.). Euphytica 54(2):205–208. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00039610

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Farka P, Hollá M, Tekel J, Mellen S, Vaverková t (2005) Composition of the essential oils from the flowers and leaves of Salvia sclarea L. (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Slovak Republic. J Essent Oil Res 17(2):141–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2005.9698858

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Fraternale D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Ricci D, Epifano F, Genovese S, Curini M (2005) Composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea from Italy. Chem Nat Compd 41(5):604–606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10600-005-0221-9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. García-Caparrós P, José Romero M, Llanderal A, Cermeño P, Lao M, Segura M (2019) Effects of drought stress on biomass, essential oil content, nutritional parameters, and costs of production in six lamiaceae species. Water 11:573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030573

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Gülçin I, Uguz M, Oktay M, Beydemir Ş, Küfrevioǧlu ÖI (2004) Evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.). Turk J Agric For 28:25–33

    Google Scholar 

  19. Han SH, Hur MH, Buckle J, Choi J, Lee MS (2006) Effect of aromatherapy on symptoms of dysmenorrhea in college students: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med (New York, NY) 12(6):535–541. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2006.12.535

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hristova Y, Gochev V, Wanner J (2013) Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against clinical isolates of Candida species. J BioSci Biotech 2:39–44

    Google Scholar 

  21. Hudaib M, Bellardi MG, Rubies-Autonell C, Fiori J, Cavrini V (2001) Chromatographic (GC-MS, HPLC) and virological evaluations of Salvia sclarea infected by BBWV-I. Farmaco (Societa chimica italiana) 56(3):219–227

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Jasicka-Misiak I, Poliwoda A, Petecka M, Buslovych O, Shlyapnikov VA, Wieczorek PP (2018) Antioxidant phenolic compounds in Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia sclarea L. Ecol Chem Eng 25:133–142

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Kostic M, Kitic D, Petrovic MB, Jevtovic-Stoimenov T, Jovic M, Petrovic A, Zivanovic S (2017) Anti-inflammatory effect of the Salvia sclarea L. ethanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 199:52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.01.020

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Kuzma L, Rozalski M, Walencka E, Rozalska B, Wysokinska H (2007) Antimicrobial activity of diterpenoids from hairy roots of Salvia sclarea L.: salvipisone as a potential anti-biofilm agent active against antibiotic resistant Staphylococci. Phytomed Int J Phytother Phytopharmacol 14(1):31–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2005.10.008

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Kuzma L, Kalemba D, Rozalski M, Rozalska B, Wieckowska-Szakiel M, Krajewska U, Wysokinska H (2009) Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from Salvia sclarea plants regenerated in vitro. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 14(4):1438–1447. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14041438

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Lawrence BM (1994) Production of clary sage oil and sclareol in North America. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on medicinal and aromatic plants, p 41

  27. Lee KB, Cho E, Kang YS (2014) Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil. Phytother Res PTR 28(11):1599–1605. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5163

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Opdyke D (1973) Monographs on fragrance raw materials. J Food Cosmet Toxicol 11(4):1011–1081

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Ou MC, Hsu TF, Lai AC, Lin YT, Lin CC (2012) Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 38(5):817–822. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0756.2011.01802.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Ozdemir E, Alpinar K (2015) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde—Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol 166:53–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.052

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Peana AT, Moretti MDL (2002) Pharmacological activities and applications of Salvia sclarea and Salvia desoleana essential oils. In: Atta ur R (ed) Studies in natural products chemistry, vol 26. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 391–423. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1572-5995(02)80012-6

    Google Scholar 

  32. Pitarokili D, Couladis M, Petsikos-Panayotarou N, Tzakou O (2002) Composition and antifungal activity on soil-borne pathogens of the essential oil of Salvia sclarea from Greece. J Agric Food Chem 50(23):6688–6691. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020422n

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Raffa RB, Iannuzzo JR, Levine DR, Saeid KK, Schwartz RC, Sucic NT, Terleckyj OD, Young JM (2005) Bacterial communication (“quorum sensing”) via ligands and receptors: a novel pharmacologic target for the design of antibiotic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Therapeutics 312(2):417–423. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.075150

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Schmiderer C, Grassi P, Novak J, Weber M, Franz C (2008) Diversity of essential oil glands of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae). Plant Biol 10(4):433–440. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2008.00053.x

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Seol GH, Shim HS, Kim PJ, Moon HK, Lee KH, Shim I, Suh SH, Min SS (2010) Antidepressant-like effect of Salvia sclarea is explained by modulation of dopamine activities in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 130(1):187–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.04.035

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Seol GH, Lee YH, Kang P, You JH, Park M, Min SS (2013) Randomized controlled trial for Salvia sclarea or Lavandula angustifolia: differential effects on blood pressure in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic examination. J Altern Complement Med (New York, NY) 19(7):664–670. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2012.0148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Sharopov FS, Satyal P, Setzer WN, Wink M (2015) Chemical compositions of the essential oils of three Salvia species cultivated in Germany. J Am J Essent Oils Nat Prod 3:26–29

    Google Scholar 

  38. Shinohara K, Doi H, Kumagai C, Sawano E, Tarumi W (2017) Effects of essential oil exposure on salivary estrogen concentration in perimenopausal women. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 37(8):567–572

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Sienkiewicz M, Glowacka A, Poznanska-Kurowska K, Kaszuba A, Urbaniak A, Kowalczyk E (2015) The effect of clary sage oil on Staphylococci responsible for wound infections. Postepy dermatologii i alergologii 32(1):21–26. https://doi.org/10.5114/pdia.2014.40957

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Souleles C, Argyriadou N (1997) Constituents of the essential oil of Salvia sclarea growing wild in Greece. Int J Pharmacogn 35(3):218–220. https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi.35.3.218.13295

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Tadokoro Y, Horiuchi S, Takahata K, Shuo T, Sawano E, Shinohara K (2017) Changes in salivary oxytocin after inhalation of clary sage essential oil scent in term-pregnant women: a feasibility pilot study. BMC Res Notes 10(1):717. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-3053-3

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Tulukcu E, Yalcin H, Ozturk I, Sagdic O (2012) Changes in the fatty acid compositions and bioactivities of clary sage seeds depending on harvest year. Ind Crops Prod 39:69–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.02.012

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ulubelen A, Topcu G, Eris C, Sonmez U, Kartal M, Kurucu S, Bozok-Johansson C (1994) Terpenoids from Salvia sclarea. Phytochemistry 36(4):971–974

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Verzár-Petri G, Then M, Mészáros S (1985) Formation of essential oil in clary sage under different conditions. In: Svendsen AB, Scheffer JJC (eds) Essential oils and aromatic plants: proceedings of the 15th international symposium on essential oils, held in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, July 19–21, 1984. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 199–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5137-2_22

  45. Vieira-Brock PL, Vaughan BM, Vollmer DL (2017) Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens. Biochimie Open 5:8–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopen.2017.09.001

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW (1962) Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiiflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med Soc Exp Biol Med (New York, NY) 111:544–547. https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-111-27849

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Yang Z, Kitano Y, Chiba K, Shibata N, Kurokawa H, Doi Y, Arakawa Y, Tada M (2001) Synthesis of variously oxidized abietane diterpenes and their antibacterial activities against MRSA and VRE. Bioorg Med Chem 9(2):347–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-0896(00)00253-4

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Yang HJ, Kim KY, Kang P, Lee HS, Seol GH (2014) Effects of Salvia sclarea on chronic immobilization stress induced endothelial dysfunction in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 14:396. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-396

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. Yaseen M, Kumar B, Ram D, Singh M, Anand S, Yadav HK, Samad A (2015) Agro morphological, chemical and genetic variability studies for yield assessment in clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.). Ind Crops Prod 77:640–647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.09.047

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Yousefzadi M, Sonboli A, Karimic F, Ebrahimi SN, Asghari B, Zeinalia A (2007) Antimicrobial activity of some Salvia species essential oils from Iran. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, J Biosci 62(7–8):514–518

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful from TabibDaru Pharmaceutical Company, Kashan, Iran.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohaddese Mahboubi.

Ethics declarations

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

Mohaddese Mahboubi has no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mahboubi, M. Clary sage essential oil and its biological activities. ADV TRADIT MED (ADTM) 20, 517–528 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-019-00420-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Clary sage
  • Salvia sclarea
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Linalool
  • Linalyl acetate