Table 2 Soil profile descriptions. Taxonomy of soil profiles according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2015)

From: Effects of Quercus rubra L. on soil properties and humus forms in 50-year-old and 80-year-old forest stands of Lombardy plain

Profiles and horizons Color (moist) Mottles Rock fragments Structure Roots
BV (Bosco Vacaressino)
MF (mixed forest)—Haplic Umbrisol (Arenic, Endoeutric)
A (0–3 cm) 10YR 2/2 Absent Common, f–vf Granular, m Many, f–vf
AB (3–27 cm) 10YR 3/3 Absent Frequent, f–vf Subang. blocky, m Common, vf–f
BC (27–60 cm) 10YR 4/4 Absent Frequent, f–vf Massive Few, f–m
ROF (red oak forest)—Dystric Endoskeletic Cambisol (Humic)
A (0–2 cm) 10YR 2/2 Absent Few, f–vf Single grain Many, f–vf
AB (2–13 cm) 10YR 3/3 Absent Few, f–vf Granular, m Common, f–vf
Bw (13–33 cm) 10YR 4/5 Absent Few, f–vf Subang. blocky, m Common, f–m
BC (33–60 cm) 10YR 3.5/6 10YR 6/6, many Abundant, f–vf Massive Few, m
BG (Bosco Ginestre)
MF (mixed forest)—Eutric Regosol (Humic)
A (0–9 cm) 10YR 3/2.5 Absent Absent Granular, f Many f–vf
AC (9–20 cm) 10YR 4/3 Absent Absent Subang. blocky, m Common, vf–f
C1 (20–35 cm) 10YR 4.5/3 Absent Absent Subang. blocky, m Few, vf
C2 (35–77 cm) 10YR 5/4 Absent Absent Subang. blocky, m Few, f–c
C3 (77–90 cm) 10YR 5/3 Absent Absent Single grain Absent
ROF (red oak forest)—Endoskeletic Umbrisol (Endoarenic, Endoeutric)
A (0–10 cm) 10YR 3/3 Absent Frequent, f–vf Subang. blocky, f Common, f–vf
AC (10–35 cm) 10YR 3/3 Absent Frequent, f–vf Subang. blocky, m Common, f–vf
C1 (35–50 cm) 10YR 4/4 Absent Frequent, f–vf Single grain Few, f–vf
C2 (50–65 cm) 10YR 5/4 Absent Abundant, v–vf Single grain Few, vf
  1. vf, very fine; f, fine; m, medium; c, coarse; vc, very coarse