Identification of functional flavonol synthase genes from fragrant wild cyclamen (Cyclamen purpurascens)

  • Yusuke Akita
  • Satoshi Kitamura
  • Riho Mikami
  • Hiroshi Ishizaka
Original Article


Cyclamen purpurascens is considered suitable for horticultural breeding of cyclamens because it has an attractive fragrance that is not found in other wild species. To improve the commercial value of cyclamen flowers, this fragrance has been introduced into ornamental cultivars. However, variation in flower color is somewhat limited in these cultivars, and therefore understanding the genetic networks of flower coloration in C. purpurascens is required. We previously isolated DNA fragments of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes from C. purpurascens, broadening our understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of flavonols, which are co-pigments in flower coloration. In this study, we isolated complete open reading frames of flavonol synthase genes from C. purpurascens (CpurFLS1 and CpurFLS2) and analyzed the in planta functions of the genes by molecular complementation assay using the fls mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression patterns in several organs of C. purpurascens were also determined. The results strongly suggest that the CpurFLS genes participate in flavonol synthesis. We discuss the involvement of these two FLSs in flower coloration in C. purpurascens.


Cyclamen Flavonol Flavonol synthase Flower 



We are grateful to Yukimi Yamaguchi, Chie Kurihara, and Tomomi Iwasaki for providing help and advice. We also thank Dr. Masayoshi Nakayama (NARO Institute of Vegetable and Floriculture Science) for helpful comments on flavonols in flowers.


This study was funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant (Number JP15K18641) awarded to Y. Akita.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yusuke Akita
    • 1
  • Satoshi Kitamura
    • 2
  • Riho Mikami
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ishizaka
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Life Science and Green Chemistry, Faculty of EngineeringSaitama Institute of TechnologyFukayaJapan
  2. 2.Quantum Beam Science Research DirectorateNational Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and TechnologyTakasakiJapan
  3. 3.Saitama Agricultural Technology Research CenterKumagayaJapan

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