Determination of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil treated with several additives


Consumers and food industry are interested in newly developed natural sources of antioxidants to both increase the nutritional value of products and make them healthier. Therefore, the results of this study might be useful for developing novel oil products that are biologically rich, and have a desirable shelf life. Within the scope of the present study, sunflower oil, which is one of the most consumed oils worldwide, was preferred. It was processed by using a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative (o-coumaric acid) and two popular synthetic antioxidants (tert-butyl hydroquinone and butylated hydroxytoluene). o-coumaric acid increased the shelf life of the oil more than four times (40 days versus 163 days), whereas a synthetic additive increased the shelf life of the oil three times depending on the Rancimat accelerated oxidation test. In terms of bioactive properties such as total phenolic and antioxidant activity values measured by three in vitro tests (ABTS, DPPH, and CUPRAC), each additive contributed (~1.5 times) to the oil significantly different at p < 0.001. A negative value for entropy (ΔS++ < 0) was calculated, confirming the nonspontaneous reaction (ΔG++ > 0) with a positive enthalpy (endothermic).

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. 1.

    Dillard CJ, Bruce German J (2000) Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric 80:1744–1756

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20:933–956

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Gallardo C, Jiménez L, García-Conesa MT (2006) Hydroxycinnamic acid composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of selected grain fractions. Food Chem 99:455–463.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Harris V, Jiranek V, Ford CM, Grbin PR (2010) Inhibitory effect of hydroxycinnamic acids on Dekkera spp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:721–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Boz H (2015) p-Coumaric acid in cereals: presence, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Int J Food Sci Technol 50:2323–2328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gao F, Birch J (2016) Oxidative stability, thermal decomposition, and oxidation onset prediction of carrot, flax, hemp, and canola seed oils in relation to oil composition and positional distribution of fatty acids. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 118:1042–1052.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Tengku-Rozaina TM, Birch EJ (2016) Thermal oxidative stability analysis of hoki and tuna oils by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 118:1053–1061.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Li J, Liu J, Sun X, Liu Y (2018) The mathematical prediction model for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils by the main fatty acids composition and thermogravimetric analysis. LWT 96:51–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Qi B, Zhang Q, Sui X, Wang Z, Li Y, Jiang L (2016) Differential scanning calorimetry study—assessing the influence of composition of vegetable oils on oxidation. Food Chem 194:601–607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Srivastava Y, Semwal AD, Sajeevkumar VA, Sharma GK (2017) Melting, crystallization and storage stability of virgin coconut oil and its blends by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). J Food Sci Technol 54:45–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Farhoosh R, Hoseini-Yazdi SZ (2014) Evolution of oxidative values during kinetic studies on olive oil oxidation in the Rancimat test. JAOCS, J Am Oil Chem Soc 91:281–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Upadhyay R, Mishra HN (2015) Multivariate analysis for kinetic modeling of oxidative stability and shelf life estimation of sunflower oil blended with sage (Salvia officinalis) extract under Rancimat conditions. Food Bioprocess Technol 8:801–810.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Elhussein E, Bilgin M, Şahin S (2018) Oxidative stability of sesame oil extracted from the seeds with different origins: kinetic and thermodynamic studies under accelerated conditions. J Food Process Eng 41:e12878.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kurtulbaş E, Bilgin M, Şahin S (2018) Assessment of lipid oxidation in cottonseed oil treated with phytonutrients: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Ind Crop Prod 124:593–599.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Ghosh M, Upadhyay R, Mahato DK, Mishra HN (2019) Kinetics of lipid oxidation in omega fatty acids rich blends of sunflower and sesame oils using Rancimat. Food Chem 272:471–477.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Taghvaei M, Jafari SM (2015) Application and stability of natural antioxidants in edible oils in order to substitute synthetic additives. J Food Sci Technol 52:1272–1282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    De Leonardis A, Macciola V, Lembo G et al (2007) Studies on oxidative stabilisation of lard by natural antioxidants recovered from olive-oil mill wastewater. Food Chem 100:998–1004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Malik NSA, Bradford JM (2006) Changes in oleuropein levels during differentiation and development of floral buds in “Arbequina” olives. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 110:274–278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Gülmez Ö, Şahin S (2019) Evaluation of oxidative stability in hazelnut oil treated with several antioxidants: kinetics and thermodynamics studies. LWT 111:478–483.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Şahin S (2015) A novel technology for extraction of phenolic antioxidants from mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore) leaves: solvent-free microwave extraction. Korean J Chem Eng 32:950–957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Pardauil JJR, Souza LKC, Molfetta FA, Zamian JR, Rocha Filho GN, da Costa CEF (2011) Determination of the oxidative stability by DSC of vegetable oils from the Amazonian area. Bioresour Technol 102:5873–5877.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Sánchez de Medina V, Priego-Capote F, Jiménez-Ot C, Luque de Castro MD (2011) Quality and stability of edible oils enriched with hydrophilic antioxidants from the olive tree: the role of enrichment extracts and lipid composition. J Agric Food Chem 59:11432–11441.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Tan CP, Che Man YB, Selamat J, Yusoff MSA (2001) Application of Arrhenius kinetics to evaluate oxidative stability in vegetable oils by isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. J Am Oil Chem Soc 78:1133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Ruger CW, Klinker EJ, Hammond EG (2002) Abilities of some antioxidants to stabilize soybean oil in industrial use conditions. J Am Oil Chem Soc 79:733–736.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Zhang YY, Zhang F, Thakur K, Ci AT, Wang H, Zhang JG, Wei ZJ (2018) Effect of natural polyphenol on the oxidative stability of pecan oil. Food Chem Toxicol 119:489–495.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Parry J, Su L, Luther M, Zhou K, Yurawecz MP, Whittaker P, Yu L (2005) Fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils. J Agric Food Chem 53:566–573.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bera D, Lahiri D, Nag A (2006) Studies on a natural antioxidant for stabilization of edible oil and comparison with synthetic antioxidants. J Food Eng 74:542–545.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Teixeira J, Gaspar A, Garrido EM, et al (2013) Hydroxycinnamic acid antioxidants: an electrochemical overview. Biomed Res. Int. 2013

  29. 29.

    Farhoosh R, Niazmand R, Rezaei M, Sarabi M (2008) Kinetic parameter determination of vegetable oil oxidation under Rancimat test conditions. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:587–592.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Selin Şahin.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Şahin, S., Kurtulbaş, E., Toprakçı, İ. et al. Determination of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil treated with several additives. Biomass Conv. Bioref. (2021).

Download citation


  • Food safety
  • Edible oils
  • Food additives
  • Lipid oxidation
  • Kinetics
  • Thermodynamics
  • Rancimat