Optimization of nutrients from wastewater using RSMfor augmentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with enhanced lipid productivity, FAME content, and its quality assessment using fuel quality index

Abstract

This experimental study was framed with an objective to optimize the nutrients ((dairy industry wastewater (DIWW), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4−3)) using response surface methodology (RSM) with Chlorella to investigate biomass and lipid with FAME content. Quality of obtained bio-oil was also indexed on scale of fuel quality parameters. Three variables were tested with 20 interactions between these variables, and their affects were statistically studied using central composite design. Biomass and lipid concentration with FAME content varied between 0.59 to 1.54 g L−1, 19.81 to 34.54%, and 69.32 to 82.78%, respectively, for different combinations of operating variables. Interactive effects of combined nutrients were also studied in combination, and the best biomass and lipid productivity was noticed with NO3 + PO4−3 in comparison to others, whereas the best FAME content (85.23%) was observed with DIWW + NO3. FTIR analysis showed variation in the spectra with different selected combinations with 1.7-fold increase in the lipid content in respect to control. Qualitative assessment of parameters ranges in between 0.74 and 1.01 mg KOH/g for acid value (AV), 152.34–187.24 mg KOH/g for saponification value (SV), 135.39–143.95-mg I2/100 g oil for iodine value (IN), whereas cetane value (CN) was found in between 43.06 and 50.31 and higher heating values (HHVs)) almost 45 MJ kg−1. Crude bio-oil’s quality was compared with the fuel quality index (FQI), where S4 quality sample (59.12) was found significantly compatible with the commercial biodiesel.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    Khanra A, Vasistha S, Rai MP (2017) Glycerol on lipid enhancement and fame characterization in algae for raw material of biodiesel. International Renewable Energy Res (IJRER) 7(4):1970–1978. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Sergeeva YE, Mostova EB, Gorin KV, Komova AV, Konova IA, Pojidaev VM, Sineoky SP (2017) Calculation of biodiesel fuel characteristics based on the fatty acid composition of the lipids of some biotechnologically important microorganisms. Appl Biochem Microbiol 53(8):807–813. https://doi.org/10.1134/s0003683817080063

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chandra R, Rohit MV, Swamy YV, Mohan SV (2014) Regulatory function of organic carbon supplementation on biodiesel production during growth and nutrient stress phases of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation. Bioresour Technol 165:279–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201402102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    DuongV T, Ahmed F, Thomas-Hall SR, Quigley S, Nowak E, Schenk PM (2015) High protein-and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern Australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 3:353. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe201500053

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kim H, Jo BY, Kim HS (2017) Effect of different concentrations and ratios of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate on growth of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from the Nakdong River, Korea. Algae 32(4):275–284. https://doi.org/10.4490/algae2017321023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Yodsuwan N, Sawayama S, Sirisansaneeyakul S (2017) Effect of nitrogen concentration on growth, lipid production and fatty acid profiles of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Agric Nat Resour 51(3):190–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/janres201702004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kirrolia A, Bishnoi NR, Singh R (2014) Response surface methodology as a decision-making tool for optimization of culture conditions of green microalgae Chlorella spp for biodiesel production. Ann Microbiol 64(3):1133–1147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13213-013-0752-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ahmad S, Pathak VV, Kothari R, Kumar A, Krishna SBN (2018) Optimization of nutrient stress using C. pyrenoidosa for lipid and biodiesel production in integration with remediation in dairy industry wastewater using response surface methodology. 3 Biotech 8(8):326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1342-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Yang J, Astatkie T, He QS (2016) A comparative study on the effect of unsaturation degree of camelina and canola oils on the optimization of bio-diesel production. Energy Rep 2:211–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/jegyr201608003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kothari R, Pathak VV, Pandey A, Ahmad S, Srivastava C, Tyagi VV (2017) A novel method to harvest Chlorella sp via low cost bioflocculant: influence of temperature with kinetic and thermodynamic functions. Bioresour Technol 225:84–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201611050

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ahmad S, Kothari R, Pathak VV, Pandey MK (2018) Fuel quality index: a novel experimental evaluation tool for biodiesel prepared from waste cooking oil. Waste Biomass Valoriz:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-018-0250-9

  12. 12.

    Kothari R, Ahmad S, Pathak VV, Pandey AK, Saidur R (2018) Fuel quality index of transesterified and nontransestried oil samples of mustard and ricebran oil. 5th IET International Conference on Clean Energy and Technology (CEAT2018), 6 pp. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2018.1333

  13. 13.

    APHA/AWWA/WEF Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2012) Stand methods 541. ISBN 9780875532356 https://doi.org/10.5860/choice49-6910

  14. 14.

    Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37(8):911–917

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Pathak VV, Kothari R, Chopra AK, Ahmad S, Pandey AK, Rahim NA (2016) Effect of solvent extraction methods on oil yield and its parametric feasibility with C. pyrenoidosa. IET Digital Library 87(6). https://doi.org/10.1049/cp20161344

  16. 16.

    Higgins BT, Gennity I, Fitzgerald PS, Ceballos SJ, Fiehn O, Vander Gheynst JS (2018) Algal–bacterial synergy in treatment of winery wastewater. npj Clean Water 1(1):6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41545-018-0005-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Planavsky NJ (2014) The elements of marine life. Nat Geosci 7:855–856. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2307

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Saifuddin N, Raziah AZ, Farah H (2009) Production of biodiesel from high acid value waste cooking oil using an optimized lipase enzyme/acid-catalyzed hybrid process. Aust J Chem 6:485–495. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/801756

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Zhang Y, Dube MA, McLean DDL, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment. Bioresour Technol (89):1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-8524(03)00150-0

  20. 20.

    Osundeko O, Davies H, Pittman JK (2013) Oxidative stress-tolerant microalgae strains are highly efficient for biofuel feedstock production on wastewater. Biomass Bioenergy 56:284–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiombioe201305027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Oluwaniyi OO, Dosumu OO (2009) Preliminary studies on the effect of processing methods on the quality of three commonly consumed marine fishes in Nigeria. Biokemistri 21:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/jfoodchem201005051

  22. 22.

    Schober S, Mittelbach M (2007) Iodine value and biodiesel: is limitation still appropriate? Lipid Technol 19(12):281–284. https://doi.org/10.1002/lite200700091

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Ramos MJ, Fernández CM, Casas A, Rodríguez L, Pérez Á (2009) Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties. Bioresour Technol 100:261–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech200806039

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Mandotra SK, Kumar P, Suseela MR, Ramteke PW (2014) Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: a potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 156:42–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201312127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    ASTM D6751 (2012) Standard specification for biodiesel fuel (B100) blend stock for middle distillate fuels. https://doi.org/10.1520/d6751

  26. 26.

    Fuel standard (biodiesel) determination approved under section 21 of the Fuel Quality Standard Act 2002 by the Australian Minister for the Environment and Heritage (2003)

  27. 27.

    Yang F, Long L, Sun X, Wu H, Li T, Xiang W (2014) Optimization of medium using response surface methodology for lipid production by Scenedesmus sp. Mar Drugs 12(3):1245–1257. https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Prias-Peñaranda MT, Cristiani-Urbina E, Montes-Horcasitas C, Esparza-Garcı́a F, Torzillo G, Cañizares-Villanueva RO (2013) Scenedesmus incrassatulus CLHE-Si01: a potential source of renewable lipid for high quality biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 140:158–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201304080

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Calixto CD, da Silva Santana JK, Tibúrcio VP, da Costa Sassi CF, da Conceição MM, Sassi R (2018) Productivity and fuel quality parameters of lipids obtained from 12 species of microalgae from the northeastern region of Brazil. Renew Energy 115:1144–1152. https://doi.org/10.1016/jrenene201709029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Battah MG, El-Ayoty YM, Esmael AE, El-Ghany SEA (2014) Effect of different concentrations of sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, and ferrous sulphate on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris. Int J Agric Technol 10:339–353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13213-014-0846-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Minhas AK, Hodgson P, Barrow CJ, Adholeya A (2016) A review on the assessment of stress conditions for simultaneous production of microalgal lipids and carotenoids. Front Microbiol 7:546. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb201600546

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Breuer G, Lamers PP, Martens DE, Draaisma RB, Wijffels RH (2012) The impact of nitrogen starvation on the dynamics of triacylglycerol accumulation in nine microalgae strains. Bioresour Technol 124:217–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201208003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Rodolfi L, Chini Zittelli G, Bassi N, Padovani G, Biondi N, Bonini G, Tredici MR (2009) Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 102:100–112. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit22033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Simionato D, Block MA, La Rocca N, Jouhet J, Maréchal E, Finazzi G, Morosinotto T (2013) The response of Nannochloropsis gaditana to nitrogen starvation includes de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerols, a decrease of chloroplast galactolipids, and reorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus. Eukaryot Cell 12:665–676. https://doi.org/10.1128/ec00363-12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Fan J, Yan C, Andre C, Shanklin J, Schwender J, Xu C (2012) Oil accumulation is controlled by carbon precursor supply for fatty acid synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell Physiol 53:1380–1390. https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcs082

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Pancha I, Chokshi K, George B, Ghosh T, Paliwal C, Maurya R, Mishra S (2014) Nitrogen stress triggered biochemical and morphological changes in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Bioresour Technol 156:146–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201401025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Razzak SA, Hossain MM, Lucky RA, Bassi AS, de Lasa H (2013) Integrated CO2 capture, wastewater treatment and biofuel production by microalgae culturing—a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 27: 622–653. https://doi.org/10.1016/jrser201305063

  38. 38.

    Beck WS, Hall EK (2018) Confounding factors in algal phosphorus limitation experiments. bioRxiv:298281. https://doi.org/10.1101/298281

  39. 39.

    Chu FF, Chu PN, Cai PJ, Li WW, Lam PK, Zeng RJ (2013) Phosphorus plays an important role in enhancing biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency. Bioresour Technol 134:341–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201301131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Ramírez-Verduzco LF, Rodríguez-Rodríguez JE, del Rayo Jaramillo-Jacob A (2012) Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition. Fuel 91(1):102–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/jfuel201106070

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Tuantet K, Temmink H, Zeeman G, Janssen M, Wijffels RH, BuismanC J (2014) Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor. Water Res 55:162–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/jwatres201402027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Kothari R, Pathak VV, Kumar V, Singh DP (2012) Experimental study for growth potential of unicellular alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa on dairy waste water: an integrated approach for treatment and biofuel production. Bioresour Technol 116:466–470. https://doi.org/10.1016/jbiortech201203121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Arias-Forero D, Hayashida G, Aranda M, Araya S, Portilla T, García A, Díaz-Palma P (2013) Protocol for maximizing the triglycerides-enriched lipids production from Dunaliella salina SA32007 biomass, isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Northern Chile). Adv Biosci Biotechnol 4:830–839. https://doi.org/10.4236/abb201348110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Converti A, Casazza AA, Ortiz EY, Perego P, Del Borghi M (2009) Effect of temperature and nitrogen concentration on the growth and lipid content of Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production. Chem Eng Process 48:1146–1151. https://doi.org/10.1016/jcep200903006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Ruangsomboon S, Ganmanee M, Choochote S (2013) Effects of different nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron concentrations and salinity on lipid production in newly isolated strain of the tropical green microalga, Scenedesmus dimorphus KMITL. J Appl Phycol 25:867–874. https://doi.org/10.5772/19358

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Mandal S, Mallick N (2009) Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus as a potential source for biodiesel production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84:281–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-009-1935-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Kiran B, Pathak K, Kumar R, Deshmukh D (2016) Statistical optimization using central composite design for biomass and lipid productivity of microalga: a step towards enhanced biodiesel production. Ecol Eng 92:73–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/jecoleng201603026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Dahmen I, Chtourou H, Jebali A, Daassi D, Karray F, Hassairi I, Dhouib A (2014) Optimisation of the critical medium components for better growth of Picochlorum sp. and the role of stressful environments for higher lipid production. J Sci Food Agric 38:1381–1392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-015-1379-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Pruvost J, Pottier L, Legrand J (2006) Numerical investigation of hydrodynamic and mixing conditions in a torus photobioreactor. Chem Eng Sci 61:4476–4489. https://doi.org/10.1016/jces200602027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Ahmad M, Ullah K, Khan MA, Zafar M, Tariq M, Ali S, Sultana S (2011) Physicochemical analysis of hemp oil biodiesel: a promising non edible new source for bioenergy. Energy Sources Part A 33(14):1365–1137. https://doi.org/10.1080/155670362010499420

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Bücker F, Santestevan NA, Roesch LF, Jacques RJS, Peralba MDCR, de Oliveira Camargo FA, Bento FM (2011) Impact of biodiesel on biodeterioration of stored Brazilian diesel oil. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 65(1):172–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/jibiod201009008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Acharya N, Nanda P, Panda S, Acharya S (2017) Analysis of properties and estimation of optimum blending ratio of blended mahua biodiesel. Eng Sci Technol Int J 20(2):511–517. https://doi.org/10.1016/jjestch201612005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Gopinath A, Sairam K, Velraj R, Kumaresan G (2015) Effects of the properties and the structural configurations of fatty acid methyl esters on the properties of biodiesel fuel: a review. Proc Inst Mech Eng D 229(3):357–390. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407014541103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Sivaramakrishnan K, Ravikumar P (2012) Determination of cetane number of biodiesel and its influence on physical properties. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 7(2):205–211. https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0077

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

The authors of the manuscript are grateful to the University Grant Commission (UGC), India for providing financial support and are thankful to the Head, Department of Environmental Science and Microbiology and Director, USIC of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (BBAU), Lucknow, India for providing the instrumentation facilities for this research study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Richa Kothari.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmad, S., Kothari, R., Pathania, D. et al. Optimization of nutrients from wastewater using RSMfor augmentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with enhanced lipid productivity, FAME content, and its quality assessment using fuel quality index. Biomass Conv. Bioref. 10, 495–512 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-019-00443-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Response surface methodology
  • Nutrients
  • Wastewater
  • FAME content
  • Fuel quality index