The addition of dolomite to the combustion of biomass fuel forms: the study of ashes agglomeration and fusibility

Abstract

The combustion of biomass often leads to the formation of agglomerated deposits. The problems related to ash agglomeration may be reduced by added dolomite. The occurrence of agglomeration may be indicated by the mass ratio of the formed silicates and inert material. Excess alkali oxides may sublimate and form deposits in the duct systems and on heat transfer surfaces. We used optical microscopy and photography to document the changes during the combustion tests of five types of biomass (hay, rice husk, spruce, miscanthus, and wheat straw) under different temperatures and with/out added dolomite. In rice husk the ratio of alkali metals and SiO2 approaches the stoichiometry of the reaction of K2Si4O9 formation. The mass ratio of the silicate and inert ash approaches 1 and agglomeration does not occur. The fusing point of ash exceeds 1200 °C. To prevent agglomeration in combusting spruce and miscanthus, it is convenient to add 2 wt% of dolomite for the temperature of 1180 °C. In the case of wheat straw, 2 wt% of dolomite should be dosed for 900 °C, 5 wt% for 1000 °C, and 10 wt% for 1100 and 1180 °C. In hay, it is suitable to add 2 wt% of dolomite for the temperature of 1000 °C, 5 wt% for 1100 °C, and 10 wt% for 1180 °C. In all the cases, the addition of dolomite ensures the ratio of silicate and inert material to be below 1, and agglomeration is avoided.

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Funding

This paper was conducted within the framework of the project CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0389: Research Infrastructure Development of the CENET. It was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under OP RDE grant number CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000753 “Research centre for low-carbon energy technologies” and also by project of the VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, ENET Centre, Specific research SP2018/54-measuring stand for testing of water-ring pumps and LO1404: Sustainable Development of ENET.

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Correspondence to Marcel Mikeska.

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Highlights

– Ash agglomeration during the combustion of five types of biomass was observed

– Combustion of samples with/out added dolomite and under various temperatures was tested

– Structure of the melted ash was examined by optical microscopy

– wt% (mass percent) of added dolomite and combustion temperatures are recommended for five types of biomass to avoid ash agglomeration

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Najser, J., Mikeska, M., Peer, V. et al. The addition of dolomite to the combustion of biomass fuel forms: the study of ashes agglomeration and fusibility. Biomass Conv. Bioref. 10, 471–481 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-019-00438-w

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Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Combustion
  • Ash
  • Dolomite
  • Agglomeration