Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 413–421 | Cite as

A comparable study on the hot-water treatment of wheat straw and okra stalk prior to delignification

  • Saleem Ullah
  • Hannu Pakkanen
  • Joni Lehto
  • Raimo Alén
Original Article
  • 75 Downloads

Abstract

Wheat straw and okra stalk were studied to evaluate their potential use for integrated lignocellulosic biorefining. Besides chemical pulp, a wide spectrum of value-added by-products were prepared by hot-water extraction of the feedstocks under varying conditions (140 °C for 60 and 240 min and 150 °C for 25 and 100 min) prior to sulfur-free soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping (NaOH charge 15 and 20% by weight on o.d. feedstock for wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively, with an AQ charge of 0.05% by weight on o.d. for both feedstocks). During the hot-water pre-treatment, the most significant mass removal, respectively, 12% (w/w) and 23% (w/w) of the initial wheat straw and okra stalk was obtained at 150 °C with a treatment time of 100 min. The hydrolysates were characterized in terms of pH and the content of carbohydrates (6–20% (w/w) of the initial amount), volatile acids (acetic and formic acids), and furans. The pre-treatment stage also facilitated the delignification stage, and, for example, the pulp yields (w/w), 57% (145 °C, 15 min, and kappa number 18) and 41% (165 °C, 180 min, and kappa number 32) were obtained for the pre-treated (150 °C, P200) wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively. Results clearly indicated that both non-wood materials were suitable for this kind of biorefining approach.

Keywords

Biorefining Hot-water extraction Okra stalk Soda-AQ pulping Wheat straw Yield 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study has been supported by the Doctoral Program in Chemistry, University of Jyväskylä. Additionally, financial support from the Finnish Cultural Foundation and Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation (Joni Lehto) is gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

13399_2018_306_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1.18 mb)
13399_2018_306_MOESM2_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 13.7 kb)
13399_2018_306_MOESM3_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 13.6 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Mendes CVT, Carvalho MGVS, Baptista CMSG, Rocha JMS, Soares BIG, Sousa GDA (2009) Valorisation of hardwood hemicelluloses in the kraft pulping process by using an integrated biorefinery concept. Food Bioprod Process 87:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Martin-Sampedro R, Eugenio ME, Moreno JA, Revilla E, Villar JC (2014) Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment. Bioresour Technol 153:236–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lehto JT, Alén RJ (2015) Chemical pretreatments of wood chips prior to alkaline pulping—a review of pretreatment alternatives, chemical aspects of the resulting liquors, and pulping outcomes. Bioresources 10:8604–8656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kumar P, Barrett DM, Delwiche MJ (2009) Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:3713–3729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gong C, Goundalkar MJ, Bujanovic BM (2012) Evaluation of different sulfur-free delignification methods for hot-water extracted hardwood. J Wood Chem Technol 32:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carvalheiro F, Duarte LC, Gírio FM (2008) Hemicellulose biorefineries: a review on biomass pretreatments. J Sci Ind Res 67:849–864Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chirat C, Lachenal D, Sanglard M (2012) Extraction of xylans from hardwood chips prior to kraft cooking. Process Biochem 47:381–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jönsson LJ, Alriksson B, Nilvebrant NO (2013) Bioconversion of lignocellulose: inhibitors and detoxification. Biotechnol Biofuels 6:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akhtar N, Gupta K, Goyal D, Goyal A (2015) Recent advances in pretreatment technologies for efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 35:489–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sánchez ÓJ, Cardona CA (2008) Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks. Bioresour Technol 99:5270–5295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhu JY, Pan X, Zalesny RS Jr (2010) Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:847–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alén R (2011) Principles of biorefining. In: Alén R (ed) Biorefining of forest resources. Paper Engineers’ Association, Helsinki, pp 55–114Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jahan MS, Rukhsana B, Baktash MM, Ahsan L, Fatehi P, Ni Y (2013) Pulping of non-wood and its related biorefinery potential in Bangladesh: a review. Curr Org Chem 17:1570–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jahan MS, Shamsuzzaman M, Rahman MM, Moeiz SMI, Ni Y (2012) Effect of pre-extraction on soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of rice straw. Ind Crop Prod 37:164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lynd LR, Elamder RT, Wyman CE (1996) Likely features and costs of mature biomass ethanol technology. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 57:741–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tunc MS, van Heiningen ARP (2009) Autohydrolysis of mixed southern hardwoods: effect of P-factor. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 24:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    FAOSTAT (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Production Statistics), (http://fao.org), (2017) Accessed on 13 June 2017
  18. 18.
    Baw AO, Gedamu F, Dechassa N (2017) Effect of plant population and nitrogen rates on growth and yield of okra [Abelmoscus esculentus (L). Moench] in Gambella region, Western Ethiop. Afr J Agric Res 12:1395–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Swan B (1965) Isolation of acid-soluble lignin from the Klason lignin determination. Svensk Papperstidn 68:791–795Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pakkanen H, Alén R (2013) Alkali consumption of aliphatic carboxylic acids during alkaline pulping of wood and non-wood feedstocks. Holzforschung 67:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Käkölä JM, Alén RJ, Isoaho JP, Matilainen RB (2008) Determination of low-molecular-mass aliphatic carboxylic acids and inorganic anions from kraft black liquors by ion chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1190:150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Paredes JJ, Jara R, Shaler SM, van Heiningen A (2008) Influence of hot water extraction on the physical and mechanical behavior of OSB. Forest Prod J 58:56–62Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kleen MA, Liitiä TM, Tehomaa MM (2011) The effect of the physical form and size of raw materials in pressurized hot water extraction of birch. In The proceedings of the 16th international symposium on wood, fiber and pulping chemistry (16th ISWFPC). Tianjin, China, pp 1013–1018Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lehto J (2015) Advanced biorefinery concept integrated to chemical pulping (doctoral thesis). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, University of Jyväskylä, JyväskyläGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang S, Yang H (2011) Effect of hot-water pre-extraction on alkaline pulping properties of wheat straw. Adv Mater Res 236:1174–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yoon SH, van Heiningen A (2008) Kraft pulping and papermaking properties of hot-water pre-extracted loblolly pine in an integrated forest products biorefinery. TAPPI J 7:22–27Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tunc MS, Lawoko M, van Heiningen ARP (2010) Understanding the limitations of removal of hemicelluloses during autohydrolysis of a mixture of southern hardwoods. Bioresources 5:356–371Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arayaa F, Troncosob E, Mendoncab RT, Fareera J, Rencoretd J, Del Rio JC (2015) Structural characteristics and distribution of lignin in eucalyptus globulus pulps obtained by a combined autohydrolysis/alkaline extraction process for enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. J Chil Chem Soc 60:2954–2960CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland

Personalised recommendations