Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 413–421 | Cite as

A comparable study on the hot-water treatment of wheat straw and okra stalk prior to delignification

  • Saleem Ullah
  • Hannu Pakkanen
  • Joni Lehto
  • Raimo Alén
Original Article


Wheat straw and okra stalk were studied to evaluate their potential use for integrated lignocellulosic biorefining. Besides chemical pulp, a wide spectrum of value-added by-products were prepared by hot-water extraction of the feedstocks under varying conditions (140 °C for 60 and 240 min and 150 °C for 25 and 100 min) prior to sulfur-free soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping (NaOH charge 15 and 20% by weight on o.d. feedstock for wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively, with an AQ charge of 0.05% by weight on o.d. for both feedstocks). During the hot-water pre-treatment, the most significant mass removal, respectively, 12% (w/w) and 23% (w/w) of the initial wheat straw and okra stalk was obtained at 150 °C with a treatment time of 100 min. The hydrolysates were characterized in terms of pH and the content of carbohydrates (6–20% (w/w) of the initial amount), volatile acids (acetic and formic acids), and furans. The pre-treatment stage also facilitated the delignification stage, and, for example, the pulp yields (w/w), 57% (145 °C, 15 min, and kappa number 18) and 41% (165 °C, 180 min, and kappa number 32) were obtained for the pre-treated (150 °C, P200) wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively. Results clearly indicated that both non-wood materials were suitable for this kind of biorefining approach.


Biorefining Hot-water extraction Okra stalk Soda-AQ pulping Wheat straw Yield 



This study has been supported by the Doctoral Program in Chemistry, University of Jyväskylä. Additionally, financial support from the Finnish Cultural Foundation and Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation (Joni Lehto) is gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland

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