Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 345–355 | Cite as

Methyl β-cyclodextrin as a booster for the extraction for Olea europaea leaf polyphenols with a bio-based deep eutectic solvent

  • Vassilis Athanasiadis
  • Spyros Grigorakis
  • Stavros Lalas
  • Dimitris P. Makris
Original Article

Abstract

A novel deep eutectic solvent (DES) with optimised composition was used to evaluate the effect of methyl β-cyclodextrin (CD) on the efficiency of polyphenol extraction from Olea europaea leaves (OLLs). The process developed was based on a 23 full-factorial design and response surface methodology to assess the simultaneous effect of CD concentration (C CD), liquid-to-solid ratio (R L/S ) and temperature (T). Under optimised conditions (C CD = 9%, R L/S = 40 mL g−1, T = 51 °C), the yield in total polyphenols (Y TP) was 116.65 ± 3.60 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight. This value was significantly higher than that determined for the extraction performed with 60% aqueous ethanol. The extraction kinetics also showed that the extraction rate was slowed down in the presence of CD, yet the higher extraction capacity of the DES/CD medium was confirmed. Characterisation of the extracts obtained with DES/CD and DES by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that there was no selective extraction of any particular polyphenol, suggesting that CD acted merely as an extraction booster.

Keywords

Antioxidants Deep eutectic solvents Methyl β-cyclodextrin Olea europaea Polyphenols 

Nomenclature

AAR

Antiradical activity (μmol DPPH g−1)

De

Diffusivity (m2 s−1)

h

Initial extraction rate (mg g−1 min−1)

k

Second-order extraction rate constant (g mg−1 min−1)

PR

Reducing power (μmol AAE g−1)

RL/S

Liquid-to-solid ratio (mL g−1)

t

Time (min)

T

Temperature (°C)

YTFn

Yield in total flavonoids (mg RtE g−1)

YTP

Yield in total polyphenols (mg GAE g−1)

YTP(s)

Yield in total polyphenols at saturation (mg GAE g−1)

Abbreviations

AAEs

Ascorbic acid equivalents

CD

Methyl β-cyclodextrin

DESs

Deep eutectic solvents

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical

GAEs

Gallic acid equivalents

OLLs

Olea europaea leaves

RtE

Rutin equivalents

TPTZ

2,4,6-Tripyridyl-s-triazine

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vassilis Athanasiadis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Spyros Grigorakis
    • 3
  • Stavros Lalas
    • 2
  • Dimitris P. Makris
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EnvironmentUniversity of the AegeanMyrinaGreece
  2. 2.Department of Food TechnologyTechnological Educational Institute (T.E.I.) of ThessalyKarditsaGreece
  3. 3.Food Quality and Chemistry of Natural Products ProgrammeMediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (M. A. I. Ch.), International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM)ChaniaGreece

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