Benchmarking heavy-duty ethanol vehicles against diesel and CNG vehicles
- 287 Downloads
The Finnish energy company St1, producing waste-based ethanol, is working on high-concentration ethanol fuels together with the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. One example of the results of this cooperation is the high-concentration flex-fuel vehicle fuel (RE85) optimised for cold conditions, now available nationwide in Finland. The newest initiative is a field test with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles using Scania technology. In the preparatory phase, VTT carried out measurements on one ethanol bus and one ethanol truck. It turns out that Scania’s ethanol technology delivers fuel efficiency (in megajoules per kilometre) almost as good as conventional diesel engines, with particulate emission levels lower than the diesel average. For fuel efficiency, the ethanol engine clearly outpoints current natural gas engines. With these promising results, St1 took the decision to go ahead with field testing with three trucks, one delivery truck and two refuse vehicles. A monitoring programme of the field test vehicles has been set up. This paper describes exhaust emission and fuel consumption results of the ethanol vehicles, benchmarking the results against results from corresponding diesel and natural gas vehicles.
KeywordsHeavy-duty vehicles Ethanol Diesel CNG Emissions Energy consumption
The projects on heavy-duty ethanol vehicles receive financial support from the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy and from Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation.
- 1.Laurikko J, Nylund N-O (2011) Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. Proceedings of XIX ISAF. 10–14 October 2011. Verona, Italy. Paper T6.5CGoogle Scholar
- 2.Hådell O, Nilsson L (2011) How to design appropriate incentives. Proceedings of XIX ISAF. 10–14 October 2011. Verona, Italy. Paper T0.2HGoogle Scholar
- 3.Nordström P-E (2007) Scania continues renewable fuel drive. New highly efficient diesel-ethanol engine—ready to cut fossil CO2 emissions by 90 %. Press Info 21.5.2007. At: http://www.scania.com/Images/P07503EN%20New%20ethanol%20engine_tcm10-163550_81325.pdf. Accessed 23 May 2012
- 4.SEKAB Biofuels & Chemicals (n.d.) Etamax D. Specification sheet for bioethanol fuel for converted diesel engines. SEKAB Biofuels & ChemicalsGoogle Scholar
- 5.VTT (2010) Update of VTT’s bus data base. 27 Dec 2010Google Scholar
- 6.Hådell O (2012) Alternative energy and new technology for heavy-duty vehicles. TransEco seminar on advanced bus technologies and alternative fuels. Helsinki 6 Feb 2012. At: http://www.transeco.fi/files/534/Alternative_Energy_and_New_Technology_for_Heavy-duty_Vehicles_Olle_Hadell.pdf. Accessed 23 May 2012
- 7.Nylund N-O, Erkkilä K, Clark N, Rideout G (2007) Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles. Final report of IEA AMF Annex XXIX. At: http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/tiedotteet/2007/T2396.pdf. Accessed 23 May 2012