Phytochemical Analysis and Some Bioactivities of Leaves and Fruits of Myrsine africana Linn

Abstract

Myrsine africana is a medicinal plant which belongs to the family Myrsinaceae and has been used as an appetizer, carminative and anthelmintic. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic, antitumor, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of fruit and leaf methanolic and chloroform extracts of M. africana as well as the quantitative phytochemical assessment. Leaves and fruits were collected randomly from M. Africana plants growing at Margallah Hills, Islamabad, Pakistan. Samples were shade-dried for further extraction. Methanol extract of both leaf and fruit performed better results than chloroform extract in terms of all activities (i.e., antioxidant, cytotoxic, antitumor and antimicrobial. Fruits extract exhibited cytotoxicity with 100% mortality, while leaves exhibited 33.33% mortality of brine shrimp at 1000 µgmL−1. Similarly, tumor inhibition of potato disk exhibited by methanol extract of fruit and leaves was 82.22% and 53.70%, respectively, at 1000 µgmL−1. Fruit extracts have shown remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity, with maximum percentage observed against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumonia (83.05 and 69.98) at 25 mgmL−1, respectively, while leaves have shown 30.94% and 28.51%, respectively. Maximum antifungal inhibition was observed in methanol extract of both fruit and leaves against Alternaria alternata (83.64%) at 25 mgmL−1. A percentage of 66.48 and 52.47 radical scavenging activity was observed against DPPH assay by methanolic fruit and leave extract, respectively, at 250 µgmL−1. Similarly, an absorbance range of 0.986–0.207 nm and 0.402–0.014 nm was shown by methanolic fruit and leaves extract, respectively, against phosphomolybdate assay. Phytochemicals such as terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins and saponins were present qualitatively in all tested extracts. Fruit and leaf extracts contain total phenolics (0.137 mgg−1 and 0.089 mgg−1), flavonoids (20 mgg−1 and 12.5 mgg−1) and saponins (140 mgg−1 and 66 mgg−1), respectively. Selected phytochemical properties such as flavonoids, phenolic, terpenoids, steroids and saponins are major bioactive components considered vital sources for the treatment of destructive disease. In the view of obtained results, we conclude that fruit extracts of M. Africana have better pharmacological properties than leaf extracts. Further studies are in progress toward identification and characterization of chemical compounds.

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Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Department of Botany, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan, for providing financial support for this research.

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Correspondence to Yamin Bibi.

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Laraib, S., Sharif, S., Bibi, Y. et al. Phytochemical Analysis and Some Bioactivities of Leaves and Fruits of Myrsine africana Linn. Arab J Sci Eng (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-020-04710-4

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Keywords

  • Antifungal
  • Antioxidant
  • Antitumor
  • Antibacterial
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Myrsine africana