Advertisement

Design Considerations for Enhanced Coupling Coefficient and Misalignment tolerance Using Asymmetrical Circular Coils for WPT System

  • Ravikiran Vaka
  • Ritesh Kumar Keshri
Research Article - Electrical Engineering
  • 47 Downloads

Abstract

In case of misalignment, variation in the coupling coefficient between transmitting and receiving coils employed for wireless power transfer is obvious. During the design process of coil system, assurance of least affected coupling coefficient during misalignment is an important issue and can be addressed through appropriate coil structure. Asymmetrical circular spiral coils with unequal outer diameter and fixed self-inductance exhibits better tolerance to misalignment with the limitation of smaller averaged coupling coefficient. The present paper considers the analytical model of asymmetrical circular spiral coils to investigate the dependency of the coil system dimensions on mutual inductance and coupling coefficient with equal outer diameter. Based on the observations from analytical expressions, simulations are performed through finite element method approach using ANSYS MAXWELL. Outcome of the investigations has been used for the design consideration of coil system, which is less sensitive to the misalignment. Based on the proposed design considerations, experimental setup is developed and tested for the case study of E-Rickshaw with 400 mm outer diameter and 120-mm air gap.

Keywords

Asymmetrical circular spiral coils Coupling coefficient Misalignment Mutual inductance Wireless power transfer 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to Department of Science and Technology SERB and Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India for financial support under projects DST/ECR/2016/002029 and MLA/MUM/GA/10(37)B respectively.

References

  1. 1.
    Madawala, U.K.; Thrimawithana, D.J.: A bidirectional inductive power interface for electric vehicles in V2G systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 58(10), 4789–4796 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Villa, J.L.; Sallan, J.; Sanz Osorio, J.F.; Llombart, A.: High-misalignment tolerant compensation topology for ICPT systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(2), 945–951 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khaligh, A.; Dusmez, S.: Comprehensive topological analysis of conductive and inductive charging solutions for plug-in EVs. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(8), 3475–3489 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Covic, G.A.; Boys, J.T.: Inductive power transfer. Proc. IEEE 101(6), 1276–1289 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miller, J.M.; Onar, O.C.; Chinthavali, M.: Primary-side power flow control of wireless power transfer for electric vehicle charging. IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 3(1), 147–162 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vilathgamuwa, D.; Sampath, J.: Wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EVs) present and future trends. In: Plug in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids, chap 2. Springer, Berlin, pp. 3360 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Samanta, S.; Rathore, A.K.: A new current-fed CLC transmitter and LC receiver topology for inductive wireless power transfer application: analysis, design, and experimental results. IEEE Trans. Transport. Electrif. 1(4), 357–368 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buja, G.; Bertoluzzo, M.; Mude, K.N.: Design and experimentation of WPT charger for electric city car. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electon. 62(12), 7436–7447 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim, H.; et al.: Coil design and measurements of automotive magnetic resonant wireless charging system for high-efficiency and low magnetic field leakage. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 64(2), 383–400 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang, W.; Mi, C.C.: Compensation topologies of high-power wireless power transfer systems. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 65(6), 4768–4778 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, W.; Zhao, H.; Deng, J.; Li, S.; Mi, C.C.: Comparison study on SS and double-sided LCC compensation topologies for EV/PHEV wireless chargers. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 65(6), 4429–4439 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vaka, R.; Keshri, R.K.: Review on contactless power transfer for electric vehicle charging. Energies 10(5), 636 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ravikiran, V.; Keshri, R.K.; Santos, M.M.: Inductive characteristics of asymmetrical coils for wireless power transfer. In: Eighteenth annual IEEE international conference on industrial technology, ICIT, Toronto, ON, pp. 538–542 (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aditya, K.; Williamson, S.S.: A review of optimal conditions for achieving maximum power output and maximum efficiency for a seriesseries resonant inductive link. IEEE Trans. Transport. Electrif. 3(2), 303–311 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Samanta, S.; Rathore, A.K.; Thrimawithana, D.J.: Bidirectional Current-Fed Half-Bridge (C) (LC)(LC ) configuration for inductive wireless power transfer system. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 53(4), 4053–4062 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Liu, X.; Xu, D.: S/CLC compensation topology analysis and circular coil design for wireless power transfer. IEEE Trans. Transport. Electrif. 3(2), 496–507 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tejeda, A.; Carretero, C.; Boys, J.T.; Covic, G.A.: Ferrite-less circular pad with controlled flux cancelation for EV wireless charging. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 32(11), 8349–8359 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zaheer, A.; Hao, H.; Covic, G.A.; Kacprzak, D.: Investigation of multiple decoupled coil primary pad topologies in lumped IPT systems for interoperable electric vehicle charging. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 30(4), 1937–1955 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim, S.; Covic, G.A.; Boys, J.T.: Tripolar pad for inductive power transfer systems for EV charging. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 32(7), 5045–5057 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao, F.; Wei, G.; Zhu, C.; Song, K.: Design and optimizations of asymmetric solenoid type magnetic coupler in wireless charging system for electric vehicles. In: IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power Transfer (WoW), Chongqing, pp. 157–162 (2017)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fujita, T.; Yasuda, T.; Akagi, H.: A moving wireless power transfer system applicable to a stationary system. In: IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Montreal, QC, pp. 4943–4950 (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boys, J.T.; Covic, G.A.: Inductive power transfer systems (IPT) fact sheet: No. 1 basic concepts. In: Qualcomm (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Budhia, M.; Boys, J.T.; Covic, G.A.; Huang, C.Y.: Development of a single-sided flux magnetic coupler for electric vehicle IPT charging systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60(1), 318–328 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu, N.; Habetler, T.G.: Design of a universal inductive charger for multiple electric vehicle models. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 30(11), 6378–6390 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ni, W.; et al.: Radio alignment for inductive charging of electric vehicles. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 11(2), 427–440 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Budhia, M.; Covic, G.A.; Boys, J.T.: Design and optimization of circular magnetic structures for lumped inductive power transfer systems. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 26(11), 3096–3108 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Covic, G.A.; Boys, J.T.: Modern trends in inductive power transfer for transportation applications. IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electr. 1(1), 28–41 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu, H.H.; Gilchrist, A.; Sealy, K.D.; Bronson, D.: A high efficiency 5 kW inductive charger for EVs using dual side control. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 8(3), 585–595 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bosshard, R.; Kolar, J.W.; Wunsch, B.: Accurate finite-element modeling and experimental verification of inductive power transfer coil design. In: IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, APEC, Fort Worth, TX, pp. 1648–1653 (2014)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Diekhans, T.; De Doncker, R.W.: A dual-side controlled inductive power transfer system optimized for large coupling factor variations and partial load. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 30(11), 6320–6328 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Esteban, B.; Stojakovic, N.; Sid-Ahmed, M.; Kar, N.C.: Development of mutual inductance formula for misaligned planar circular spiral coils. In: IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Montreal, QC, pp. 1306–1313 (2015)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zheng, C.; Ma, H.; Lai, J.S.; Zhang, L.: Design considerations to reduce gap variation and misalignment effects for the inductive power transfer system. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 30(11), 6108–6119 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Conway, J.T.: Inductance calculations for circular coils of rectangular cross section and parallel axes using bessel and struve functions. IEEE Trans. Magn. 46(1), 75–81 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Babic, S.I.; Akyel, C.: Calculating mutual inductance between circular coils with inclined axes in air. IEEE Trans. Magn. 44(7), 1743–1750 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fotopoulou, K.; Flynn, B.W.: Wireless power transfer in loosely coupled links: coil misalignment model. IEEE Trans. Magn. 47(2), 416–430 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wheeler, H.A.: Simple inductance formulas for radio coils. Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 16(10), 13981400 (1928)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wheeler, H.A.: Inductance formulas for circular and square coils. Proc. IEEE 70(12), 1449–1450 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    SAE TIR J2954 Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-In/Electric Vehicles (2016)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chopra, S.; Bauer, P.: Analysis and design considerations for a contactless power transfer system. In: IEEE 33rd International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC), Amsterdam, pp. 1–6 (2011)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Niu, W.Q.; Chu, J.X.; Gu, W.; Shen, A.D.: Exact analysis of frequency splitting phenomena of contactless power transfer systems. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 60(6), 1670–1677 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mude, K.N.; Bertoluzzo, M.; Buja, G.; Pinto, R.: Design and experimentation of two-coil coupling for electric city-car WPT charging. J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 30(1), 70–78 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Palandoken, M.; Aksoy, M.; Tumay, M.: A fuzzy-controlled single-phase active power filter operating with fixed switching frequency for reactive power and current harmonics compensation. Electr. Eng. 86(1), 9–16 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Palandoken, M.; Aksoy, M.; Tumay, M.: Application of fuzzy logic controller to active power filters. Electr. Eng. 86(4), 191–198 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Palandoken, M.; Tumay, M.; Aksoy, M.: A novel approach to active power filter control. Electr. Eng. 87(1), 33–39 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations