Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 43, Issue 7, pp 3485–3491 | Cite as

Chemical Optimization of Red Pigment, Monascorubin Production in Penicillium minioluteum ED24 Using Solid-State Fermentation

  • Leong Chean Ring
  • Tong Woei Yenn
  • Najwa Izzati binti Nazri
  • Tan Wen Nee
  • Khairul Azly Zahan
  • Darah Ibrahim
  • Syarifah Rashid
Research Article - Biological Sciences


Natural pigments produced as metabolites of the microorganisms are a crucial alternative to potentially harmful synthetic dyes. Unlike the traditional pigments extracted from plants and animal skin, microbial pigments are more prevalent for its availability, low-cost extraction and effectiveness. Penicillium minioluteum ED24 is an endophytic fungi previously isolated from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and was found to produce a red pigment, monascorubin. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of monascorubin production in P. minioluteum ED24 via solid-state fermentation (SSF). Using brown rice powder with the optimized process parameters, including 60% initial moisture content, 10%v/w \(\hbox {K}_{2}\hbox {HPO}_{4}\) and 10%v/w trace ion solution, a pigment yield of 4.89 mg/g of dry fermented substrate was obtained. Pigment yield using 1% of soluble starch and mycological peptone as additional carbon and nitrogen, respectively, significantly exceeded those of other carbon and nitrogen sources. Our result indicates the viability of brown rice in combination with P. minioluteum ED24 for industrial application through solid-state fermentation.


Red pigment Penicillium minioluteum ED24 Solid-state fermentation Chemical optimization Endophytic fungi Monascorubin 


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The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Ministry of Education Malaysia under the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2017/STG03/UNIKL/02/1).


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leong Chean Ring
    • 1
  • Tong Woei Yenn
    • 1
  • Najwa Izzati binti Nazri
    • 1
  • Tan Wen Nee
    • 2
  • Khairul Azly Zahan
    • 1
  • Darah Ibrahim
    • 3
  • Syarifah Rashid
    • 4
  1. 1.Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering TechnologyUniversiti Kuala LumpurAlor GajahMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)GelugorMalaysia
  3. 3.Industrial Biotechnology Research Laboratory, School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
  4. 4.Institute of Food Security and Sustainable AgricultureUniversity Malaysia KelantanPengkalan ChepaMalaysia

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