Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 43, Issue 11, pp 5837–5850 | Cite as

Study on Hydrodesulfurization of a Mixture of Middle Distillates

  • Mohammad F. AbidEmail author
  • Shakir M. Ahmed
  • Waleed H. Abohameed
  • Salah M. Ali
Research Article - Chemical Engineering


This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of a mixture of crude oil fractions (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil) all in one time in a single reactor loaded with \(\hbox {NiCoMo}/\hbox {Al}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) under various operating parameters such as temperature \((310{-}370\,^{\circ }\hbox {C})\), pressure (40–55 bars), weight hour space velocity \((1.2\hbox {--}3.6\, \hbox {h}^{-1})\), and hydrogen-to-hydrocarbon ratio (150–300 vol/vol). Experimental results showed that temperature and pressure have positive effects on process performance while weight hour space velocity gives a different trend. Optimum operating conditions (i.e., \(350 \,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\), \(50\,\hbox {bars}, 1.2\,\hbox {h}^{-1}\), and 200 vol/vol) with the theoretical and experimental values of HDS efficiency of 95.4 and 95.8%, respectively, were estimated using advance statistical software DESIGN-EXPERT Reaction products were fractionated and analyzed for comparing with products of the conventional HDS method. An approximate evaluation of the proposed system indicated a 60% reduction in fixed capital cost compared to that for conventional hydrotreatment system. The experimental analysis revealed the feasibility of the proposed method.


Hydrotreatment Crude oil fractions Middle distillates Sulfur removal \(\hbox {NiCoMo}/\hbox {Al}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) Catalytic reactor 

List of symbols


\(\hbox {API}\,\hbox {gravity} = (141.5/\hbox {Specific}\,\hbox {Gravity}) - 131.5\)



\(\hbox {C}_{4}\hbox {H}_{4}\hbox {S}\)





Direct desulfurization




End boiling point \((^{\circ }\hbox {C})\)


Gas oil and light fractions








Heavy naphtha


High pressure






Initial boiling point \((^{\circ }\hbox {C})\)




Mild hydrocracking


Light naphtha


Light gas oil


Pressure (bar)


Petroleum research and development


Reduced crude oil


Content of sulfur in feed (wppm)


Content of sulfur in product (wppm)

Specific gravity of oil (–)


Temperature \((^{\circ }\hbox {C})\)


Weight hour space velocity \((\hbox {h}^{-1})\)


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Researchers are thankful to the School of Chemical Engineering, University of Technology, for assistance in completion of this work. The fund number (1/231/751) which has been awarded by the PR&D Center is highly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad F. Abid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shakir M. Ahmed
    • 2
  • Waleed H. Abohameed
    • 1
  • Salah M. Ali
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of TechnologyBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.SCOPMinistry of OilBaghdadIraq
  3. 3.Petroleum Research and Development CenterMinistry of OilBaghdadIraq

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