The aim of this study was to verify the effect of the inclusion of coat color on the genetic parameter estimation for linear measurements in Campolina horses. Two models (1 and 2) were applied. For model 1, coat color effect was not included as variable of the contemporary group formation; in model 2, it was included. Model 2 presented the best fitting with a Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) of −979,459.020 compared with −1,818,458.572 DIC from model 1. The average of heritability estimates ranged from low to high magnitude (0.15 to 0.53) for model 1 and from moderate to high magnitude for model 2 (0.21 to 0.47). The estimated values varied according to the analyses (models 1 and 2). The highest heritability was found for withers height (0.52), croup height (0.53), and back height (0.51). The genetic correlations ranged from values of moderate to high magnitude for models 1 (0.23 to 0.98) and 2 (0.29 to 0.99), respectively. The finding that genetic variance differed among models 1 and 2 may indicate that genotypes react differently to different coat colors, a fact implying the existence of interaction between these traits and the effect under study. The coat color influence might be explained as a pleiotropic effect of the genes that cause this phenotypic variation and also influence morphometric measures. The inclusion of the coat color effect better estimated the additive genetic variance of morphometric traits in horses. As a consequence, the genetic parameters were also more accurately estimated when it is included in the evaluation model.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bellone RR (2010) Pleiotropic effects of pigmentation genes in horses. Anim Genet 41:100–110
Bussiman FO, Perez BC, Ventura RV, Silva FF, Peixoto MGCD, Vizoná RG, Mattos EC, Ferraz JBS, Eler JP, Curi RA, Balieiro JCC (2018) Genetic analysis of morphological and functional traits in Campolina horses using Bayesian multi-trait model. Livest Sci 216:119–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2018.08.002
Diaz IDPS, Junqueira GSB, Cruz VAR, Oliveira CADEA, Oliveira HN, de Camargo GMF, Costa RB (2020) Principal components for morphometric traits in Campolina horses J Anim Breed Genet 00:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbg.12521
Fegraeus KJ, Velie BD, Axelsson J, Ang R, Hamilton NA, Andersson L, Meadows JRS, Lindgren G (2018) A potential regulatory region near the EDN3 gene may control both harness racing performance and coat color variation in horses. Physiol Rep 6(10):e13700. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13700
Finn JL, Haase B, Willet CE, van Rooy D, Chew T, Wade CM, Hamilton NA, Velie BD (2016) The relationship between coat colour phenotype and equine behaviour: a pilot study. Appl Anim Behav Sci 174:66–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2015.11.004
Geweke JF (1991) "Evaluating the accuracy of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of posterior moments," Staff Report 148. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
Haase B, Brooks SA, Schlumbaum A, Azor PJ, Bailey E, Alaeddine F, Mevissen M, Burger D, Poncet PA, Rieder S, Leeb T (2007) Allelic heterogeneity at the equine KIT locus in dominant white (W) horses. PLoS Genet 11:2101–2108. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030195
Heidelberger P, Welch PD (1983) Operations Research 31(6):1109–1144 http://www.jstor.org/stable/170841. Accessed 10 Dec 2019
Inglês FPLD, Vianna SAB, Procópio AM (2004) Padrão racial comentado do cavalo Campolina. ABCCC, Belo Horizonte, 6p
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE (2011) Censo demográfico 2010: características da população e dos domicílios: resultados do universo. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. 270p. Availableat: http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/periodicos/93/cd_2010_caracteristicas_populacao_domicilios.pdf. Accessed Jan 2019
Jacobs LN, Staiger EA, Albright JD, Brooks SA (2016) The MC1R and ASIP coat color loci may impact behavior in the horse. J Hered 107(3):214–219. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esw007
Lucena JEC, Vianna SAB, Berbari Neto F, Sales Filho RLM, Diniz WJS (2016) Caracterização morfométrica de fêmeas, garanhões e castrados da raça Campolina baseada em índices. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 68:431–438. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-8016
Mendes LJ, Pereira LFL, Wenceslau RR, Costa MD, Jayme DG, Maia HGO, Teixeira GL, Oliveira NJF (2019) Caracterização de pelagens em equinos da raça Campolina. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 71:1364–1374. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-10710
Miserani MG, Mcmanus C, Santos SA, Silva JA, Mariante AS, Abreu UGP, Mazza MC, Sereno JRB (2002) Heritability estimates for biometric measures of the Pantaneiro horse. Arch de Zootec 51:107–112
Misztal I, Tsuruta S, Lourenço D, Aguilar I, Legara A, Vitezica Z (2014) Manual for BLUPF90 family of programs. Athens: University of Georgia. Manual for BLUPF90 family of programs. Georgia: Athens: University of Georgia.
Molina A, Valera M, DOS Santos R, Rodero A (1999) Genetic parameters of morphofunctional traits in Andalusian horse. Livest Prod Sci 60:295–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(99)00101-3
Silva IS, Junqueira GSB, Oliveira CAA, Costa RB, DE Camargo GMF (2020) Inconsistencies in horse coat color registration: a case study. J Equine Sci 31:57–60. https://doi.org/10.1294/jes.31.57
Sousa AS, DE Jesus IIC, Oliveira CAA, Costa RB, Godoi FN (2018) How is the morphometry of stallions and mares show-winning and nonwinning Campolina Brazilian breed with batida and picada gaits? J Equine Vet Sci 64:34–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2018.02.012
Spiegelhalter DJ, Best NG, Carlin BP, VAN DER Linde A (2002) Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit (with discussion) JR. Stat Soc 64:583–639. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9868.02022
Statistical Analysis Systems – SAS (2008) User’s guide: version 6.11 ed. Cary
Thiruvenkadan AK, Kandasamy N, Panneerselvam S (2008) Coat colour inheritance in horses. Livest 117:109–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.05.008
Van Tassell CP, Van Vleck LD (1996) Multiple-trait Gibbs sampler for animal models: flexible programs for Bayesian and likelihood-based (co)variance component inference. J Anim Sci 74(11):2586–2597
Vicente AA, Carolino N, Ralão-Duarte J, Gama LT (2014) Selection for morphology, gaits and functional traits in Lusitano horses: I. Genetic parameter estimates. Livest Sci 164:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.01.020.2014
Yousefi Mashouf N, Mehrabani Yeganeh H, Nejati Javaremi A, Maloufi FA (2020) A novel approach to establish breed type and standards for an equine breed: Persian Kurdish horse. JAST 22:1219–1233. http://jast.modares.ac.ir/article-23-30282-en.html. Accessed 10/02/2020
The analyses were executed with records from breeder association registration data. No animals were used in experiments. No ethical statement is needed.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Communicated by: Maciej Szydlowski
About this article
Cite this article
Junqueira, G.S.B., Diaz, I.D.P.S., da Cruz, V.A.R. et al. Influence of coat color on genetic parameter estimates in horses. J Appl Genetics (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13353-021-00616-5
- Linear traits
- Equus caballus
- Withers height