Detection of speed and axle configuration of moving vehicles using acoustic emission

  • B. Algohi
  • A. Mufti
  • D. Thomson
Original Paper


Axle detection is a critical monitoring process that needs to be implemented on bridges so that the number of axles of crossing vehicles can be determined. Most bridge design codes specify bridge design loads based on certain trucks configurations. Reviewing and updating bridge design codes depend on an accurate measurement of the nature of the loads being transported across bridges. Measurement of axle loads and configuration of trucks is also essential for bridge load regulation and enforcement. In this paper, a new method is proposed for the accurate detection of velocity, number of axles, and configuration of moving vehicles on bridges. The proposed method uses the acoustic signals emitted when the tires of moving vehicles hit bridge expansion joints and was tested on a bridge in Morris, Manitoba, Canada. It was discovered that the proposed method accurately predicts the velocity, number of axles, and configuration of moving vehicles on bridges.


BWIM Acoustic Axle detection PTH23 Bridge Signal processing Vehicle velocity 


  1. 1.
    Zhang J, Lu Y, Lu Z, Liu C, Sun G, Li Z (2015) A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors. Smart Mater Struct 24(2):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jeng ST, ChuS LY (2015) Tracking heavy vehicles based on weigh-in-motion and inductive loop signature technologies. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 16(2):632–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marszalek Z, Sroka R, Zeglen T (2015) Inductive loop for vehicle axle detection from first concepts to the system based on changes in the sensor impedance components. In: Proceedings of 20th international conference on methods and models in automation and robotics, 24–27 August 2015. Miedzyzdroje, Poland, pp 765–769Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhao H, Uddin N, O’Brien E, Shao X, Zhu P (2014) Identification of vehicular axle weights with a bridge weigh-in-motion system considering transverse distribution of wheel loads. J Bridge Eng 19(3):04013008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chatterjee P, OBrien E, Li Y, Gonza´lez A (2006) Wavelet domain analysis for identification of vehicle axles from bridge measurements. Comput Struct 84(28):1792–1801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ojio T, Yamada K (2002) Bridge weigh-in-motion systems using stringers of plate girder bridges. In: Third international conference on weigh-in-motion (ICWIM3), pp 209–218Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dowling J, OBrien EJ, Gonzalez A (2012) Adaptation of cross entropy optimization to a dynamic bridge wim calibration problem. Eng Struct 44:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhao H, Uddin N, Shao X, Zhu P, Tan C (2015) Field-calibrated influence lines for improved axle weight identification with a bridge weigh-in motion system. Struct Infrastruct Eng 11(6):721–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Brien EJ, Quilligan MJ, Karoumi R (2006) Calculating an IL from direct measurements. In: Proceedings of the institution of civil engineers, bridge engineering, vol 159, pp 31–34Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Brien E, Hajializadeh D, Uddin N, Robinson D, Opitz R (2012) Strategies for axle detection in bridge weigh-in-motion systems. In: Proceedings of the international conference on weigh-in-motion (ICWIM 6), pp 79–88Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Myra L, Taylor SE, Robinson D, Mufti A, Brien EJO (2015) Recent developments in bridge weigh in motion (B-WIM). J Civil Struct Health Monit 6(1):69–81Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Caprani CC, OBrien EJ, Blacoe S (2013) Vision systems for analysis of congested traffic assessment, upgrading and refurbishment of infrastructures. RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ojio T, Carey C, OBrien E, Doherty E, Taylor S (2016) Contactless bridge weigh-in-motion. J Bridge Eng 21(7):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bao T, Babanajad SK, Taylor T, Ansari F (2015) Generalized method and monitoring technique for shear-strain-based bridge weigh-in-motion. J Bridge Eng 21(1):04015029. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Canadian Standards Association (2006) CAN/CSA-S6-06, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Structural Innovation and Monitoring Technologies Resource Center (SIMTReC)University of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations