Radiation-synthesis of chitosan/poly (acrylic acid) nanogel for improving the antitumor potential of rutin in hepatocellular carcinoma


The current study aimed to investigate the ability of chitosan/poly (acrylic acid) nanogel (CAN) to improve the bioavailability and anticancer potential of rutin. Synthesis of CAN was carried out by gamma radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid in an aqueous solution of chitosan. The relationship between the hydrodynamic radius of CAN and the absorbed radiation doses was also investigated. The prepared nanogels were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques, and then, it was used as a nano-drug carrier for rutin. The developed formulation was evaluated for its antitumor activity against chemically induced hepatocarcinoma in rats. The following parameters were measured: aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, and total bilirubin as liver function test; vascular endothelial growth factor as an angiogenesis marker; α-fetoprotein as a tumor marker; and P53, caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 as apoptosis markers. Histopathological examination was also confirmed. Significant enhanced anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and apoptotic effects were observed for rutin-loaded CAN than free rutin, indicating that this formulation could provide a novel therapeutic approach to serve as a promising agent for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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The authors are very appreciative to Prof. Dr. Ahmed Osman (Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt) for his assistance in examining histopathological aspects of this study.

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Correspondence to Hussein E. Ali.

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Radwan, R.R., Ali, H.E. Radiation-synthesis of chitosan/poly (acrylic acid) nanogel for improving the antitumor potential of rutin in hepatocellular carcinoma. Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res. 11, 261–278 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13346-020-00792-7

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  • Radiation
  • Chitosan
  • Poly acrylic acid
  • Nanogel
  • Rutin
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma