Relationships between the arterial velocity pulse index as a novel marker of atherosclerosis and biomarkers of cardiac or renal condition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
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The arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) has been explored as a novel marker of atherosclerosis using pulse wave analysis in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between the AVI and biomarkers of cardiac or renal condition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In total, 301 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (116 males and 185 females; mean age ± standard deviation: 63 ± 12 years) without a history of cardiovascular events were enrolled in this study. The AVI and biomarkers of cardiac or renal condition were measured using a commercial device, and the relationships between the AVI and the biomarkers were examined.
The AVI was significantly associated with biomarkers of cardiac condition such as the blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (r = 0.29, P < 0.001) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). The AVI was also significantly associated with biomarkers of renal condition such as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = −0.22, P < 0.001) and urinary albumin excretion (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that hs-cTnT and urinary albumin excretion were independent variables that were correlated with the AVI when it was used as a subordinate factor.
The results of this study indicate that the AVI is significantly associated with hs-cTnT and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
KeywordsArterial velocity pulse index High-sensitivity troponin T Urinary albumin Skin autofluorescence Oxidative stress Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
Human rights statement
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions. Informed consent or a substitute for it was obtained from all patients before they were included in the study.
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