, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 369–374 | Cite as

Molecular characterization and clinical epidemiology of HCV in District Dir (Lower), Pakistan

  • Sami Ullah
  • Muhammad Akram Khan
  • Shafiq Ur Rahman
  • Imran Khan
  • Fazal Akbar
  • Anshu Babbar
Short Communication


With about 200 million infections globally, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health threat. The relative prevalence of hepatitis and HCV genotypes/subtypes varies among different geographic regions. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C and HCV genotypes/subtypes in District Dir (Lower), Pakistan. Blood samples from HCV positive patients were genotyped through multiplex PCR using specific primers for HCV core region. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from the patients and data was statistically analyzed for different epidemiological parameters. The molecular evaluation results suggested the prevalence of genotype 3 in this study. The frequency of hepatitis C was found higher in males (P < 0.01). Present study suggests injections received at local clinics as a highly significant mode of HCV transmission to these patients (P < 0.002). These findings might be helpful for clinicians and related health care personnel to assess status of this important disease and highlight the need for more detailed evaluation of this devastating disease in order to frame better treatment strategies.


HCV Epidemiology Liver cancer Genotyping Prevalence 



The Authors are thankful to Ms. Nosheen Riaz for her help in sample collection and Mr. Liaqat Ali, Director, Saifi Clinical laboratory, Islamabad in sample processing.


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Copyright information

© Indian Virological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sami Ullah
    • 1
    • 6
  • Muhammad Akram Khan
    • 2
  • Shafiq Ur Rahman
    • 3
  • Imran Khan
    • 4
  • Fazal Akbar
    • 5
  • Anshu Babbar
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyShaheed Benazir Bhutto UniversityDir UpperPakistan
  2. 2.Institute for PathologyPMAS Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyShaheed Benazir Bhutto UniversityDir UpperPakistan
  4. 4.Heinrich-Heine-Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  5. 5.Center for Biotechnology and MicrobiologyUniversity of SwatMingoraPakistan
  6. 6.Helmholtz Center for Infection ResearchBrunswickGermany
  7. 7.Department of PaediatricsRWTH University HospitalAachenGermany

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