, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 32–39 | Cite as

Standardization of in vitro assays to evaluate the activity of polyherbal siddha formulations against Chikungunya virus infection

  • Jaspreet Jain
  • Somnath Pai
  • Sujatha Sunil
Original article


Chikungunya, a viral fever caused by Aedes mosquito results in extreme morbidity in affected individuals and is a major public health concern in India. Currently, modern vaccines or formulations prescribed by physicians can only provide symptomatic relief for the pyretic and post pyretic phase of the disease. Siddha practitioners follows strict medical regimen based on traditional Indian knowledge/concepts to treat Chikungunya with considerable results. The current study was undertaken to standardize assays for the study of these siddha formulations and to check their efficacy and potential mode of action as antivirals for Chikungunya virus infection in in vitro system. Although, siddha practitioners follow a regime containing 4–6 formulations, of these Brahmanandha bairavam mathirai, a part of the regime for Chikungunya followed at National Institute of Siddha and Vishnu chakram along with Brahmanandha bairavam mathirai, a part of Thiruchergodu Regime were found of have antiviral activities. It was observed that both Vishnu chakram and Brahmanandha bairavam mathirai were equally effective in blocking Chikungunya virus from entering susceptible cells in the concentrations range of 0.0625 and 0.5 mg/ml. Additionally, it was also observed that Brahmanandha bairavam mathirai was more effective than Vishnu chakram against entry of Chikungunya in the cells. The assays used in this study provides insights to the possible mode of action of various formulations used by siddha practitioners for the treatment of Chikungunya infection.


Polyherbal Siddha formulations Chikungunya In vitro 



We are thankful to Dr. Sathya Rajeshwaran, Siddha Central Research Institute, Chennai, for his inputs regarding approved siddha regimes. We acknowledge Dr. Vimal Narayanan’s assistance in the preparation of supplementary table. Financial support for the study was received from the Ministry of Ayush, (Grant No: ND/AYU/15/019), Government of India and their support is duly acknowledged.

Supplementary material

13337_2018_421_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


  1. 1.
    Robinson MC. An epidemic of virus disease in Southern Province, Tanganyika Territory, in 1952–53. I. Clinical features. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1955;49(1):28–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gerardin P, Guernier V, Perrau J, Fianu A, Le Roux K, Grivard P, et al. Estimating Chikungunya prevalence in La Reunion Island outbreak by serosurveys: two methods for two critical times of the epidemic. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:99. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mavalankar D, Shastri P, Raman P. Chikungunya epidemic in India: a major public-health disaster. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7(5):306–7. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rezza G, Nicoletti L, Angelini R, Romi R, Finarelli AC, Panning M, et al. Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet. 2007;370(9602):1840–6. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zheng K, Li J, Zhang Q, Liang M, Li C, Lin M, et al. Genetic analysis of chikungunya viruses imported to mainland China in 2008. Virol J. 2010;7:8. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Volk SM, Chen R, Tsetsarkin KA, Adams AP, Garcia TI, Sall AA, et al. Genome-scale phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus reveal independent emergences of recent epidemics and various evolutionary rates. J Virol. 2010;84(13):6497–504. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hochedez P, Jaureguiberry S, Debruyne M, Bossi P, Hausfater P, Brucker G, et al. Chikungunya infection in travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1565–7. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miner JJ, Aw-Yeang HX, Fox JM, Taffner S, Malkova ON, Oh ST, et al. Chikungunya viral arthritis in the United States: a mimic of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67(5):1214–20. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jain J, Nayak K, Tanwar N, Gaind R, Gupta B, Shastri JS, et al. Clinical, serological and virological analysis of 572 chikungunya patients during the years 2010–2013 from India. Clin Infect Dis. 2017. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brighton SW, Prozesky OW, de la Harpe AL. Chikungunya virus infection. A retrospective study of 107 cases. S Afr Med J. 1983;63(9):313–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Staples JE, Breiman RF, Powers AM. Chikungunya fever: an epidemiological review of a re-emerging infectious disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(6):942–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borgherini G, Poubeau P, Staikowsky F, Lory M, Le Moullec N, Becquart JP, et al. Outbreak of chikungunya on Reunion Island: early clinical and laboratory features in 157 adult patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(11):1401–7. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borgherini G, Poubeau P, Jossaume A, Gouix A, Cotte L, Michault A, et al. Persistent arthralgia associated with chikungunya virus: a study of 88 adult patients on reunion island. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(4):469–75. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schilte C, Staikowsky F, Couderc T, Madec Y, Carpentier F, Kassab S, et al. Chikungunya virus-associated long-term arthralgia: a 36-month prospective longitudinal study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7(3):e2137. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jain J, Dubey SK, Shrinet J, Sunil S. Dengue Chikungunya co-infection: a live-in relationship? Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thirunarayanan T. An introduction to siddha medicine. Tiruchendur: Thirukumaran Publishers; 1981.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Subbarayappa B. Siddha medicine: an overview. The Lancet. 1997;350(9094):1841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lavekar G, Padhi M. Management of chikungunya through ayurveda and siddha a technical_report. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha; 2009.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lavekar G, Padhi M. Management of chikungunya through ayurveda and siddha: a technical report. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha; 2007. p. 28–44.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anbarasu K, Manisenthil KK, Ramachandran S. Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of nilavembu kudineer choornam: a classical preparation used in the treatment of chikungunya fever. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4(10):819–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Murugan R, Vembu T, Kumarswamy M. Toxicological study of a siddha sastric formulation arumuga chendhuram in rat model. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2016;6(3):81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Manickavasakam K. Acute and sub acute toxicity studies on Sarva Noi Linga Chenduram in rodents. Int J Curr Res Chem Pharm Sci. 2017;4(2):13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ramya Devi D, Sandhya P, Malarvizhi K, Subashri S, Abinaya M, Vedha Hari B. Development of ayurvedic and siddha medicine through the application of modern pharmaceutical technique. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm. 673Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shrinet J, Jain S, Sharma A, Singh SS, Mathur K, Rana V, et al. Genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus from New Delhi reveal emergence of a new molecular signature in Indian isolates. Virol J. 2012;9(1):100.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lemm JA, Durbin RK, Stollar V, Rice CM. Mutations which alter the level or structure of nsP4 can affect the efficiency of Sindbis virus replication in a host-dependent manner. J Virol. 1990;64(6):3001–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sourisseau M, Schilte C, Casartelli N, Trouillet C, Guivel-Benhassine F, Rudnicka D, et al. Characterization of reemerging chikungunya virus. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3(6):e89. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaur P, Thiruchelvan M, Lee RC, Chen H, Chen KC, Ng ML, et al. Inhibition of chikungunya virus replication by harringtonine, a novel antiviral that suppresses viral protein expression. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(1):155–67. Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Virological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vector Borne Disease GroupInternational Centre for Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department Virology and ImmunologyAmity UniversityNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations