, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 27–31 | Cite as

Prevalence of human papilloma virus and their high-risk genotypes in Sri Lankan women

  • K. A. S. N. Shanaka
  • S. Wilathgamuwa
  • Y. I. N. S. Gunawardene
  • R. S. Dassanayake
Original Article


Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes cervical cancer in women and approximately 700 deaths have been reported annually in Sri Lanka due to this cancer. Despite, attempts have not been made to investigate the prevalence of HPV amongst Sri Lankan women with normal cytology. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based assay was set up to detect HPV in both normal and abnormal cytology and the positive samples were then tested for the genotypes, HPV 16 and HPV 18 as they have been identified as the high-risk types associating with cervical cancer. Eighty-four (number = 84) clinical samples (age range 27–69) analyzed in this study indicated that the prevalence of HPV, regardless of cytological abnormalities was 15.5%, (n = 13, 95% class interval ± 7.7) while it was 100% (n = 3) for those with abnormal cytology. Association of HPV 16 and HPV 18 among the abnormal cytology was 0 and 50% (n = 1), respectively and further, the prevalence of HPV 16 and HPV 18 in women was found to be 3.6% (n = 3, 95% CI ± 4.0) and 2.4% (n = 2, 95% CI ± 3.3), respectively. Moreover, age wise prevalence analysis revealed women of the age of 35-years or more to have higher HPV prevalence. The prevalence of HPV among normal cytology is 12.3% (n = 10, 95% CI ± 7.2) which is similar to the rates in other regions of Asia (China 15.4%; India 10.43%). Finally, higher prevalence of HPV in women of the age of 35-years or more in Sri Lanka, especially with malignant types call for such age group to be screened for proper clinical intervention to be made in reducing the incident of cervical cancers. This is the first report of prevalence of HPV among women with normal cytology in Sri Lanka.


Human papilloma virus (HPV) Cervical cancer Prevalence Cytology 



This work was supported by Durdans Hospital (Pvt) Ltd and Biotechnology funds, Department of Chemistry, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.


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Copyright information

© Indian Virological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. A. S. N. Shanaka
    • 1
  • S. Wilathgamuwa
    • 2
  • Y. I. N. S. Gunawardene
    • 3
  • R. S. Dassanayake
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ColomboColomboSri Lanka
  2. 2.Durdans Hospital (Pvt) LtdColombo 3Sri Lanka
  3. 3.Molecular Medicine Unit, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of KelaniyaKelaniyaSri Lanka

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