Photonic Sensors

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 171–181 | Cite as

Improving smoothing efficiency of rigid conformal polishing tool using time-dependent smoothing evaluation model

  • Chi Song
  • Xuejun Zhang
  • Xin Zhang
  • Haifei Hu
  • Xuefeng Zeng
Open Access


A rigid conformal (RC) lap can smooth mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, which are naturally smaller than the tool size, while still removing large-scale errors in a short time. However, the RC-lap smoothing efficiency performance is poorer than expected, and existing smoothing models cannot explicitly specify the methods to improve this efficiency. We presented an explicit time-dependent smoothing evaluation model that contained specific smoothing parameters directly derived from the parametric smoothing model and the Preston equation. Based on the time-dependent model, we proposed a strategy to improve the RC-lap smoothing efficiency, which incorporated the theoretical model, tool optimization, and efficiency limit determination. Two sets of smoothing experiments were performed to demonstrate the smoothing efficiency achieved using the time-dependent smoothing model. A high, theory-like tool influence function and a limiting tool speed of 300 RPM were o


Optics design and fabrication optics fabrication polishing 



This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science of China (NSFC) (61210015) and Youth Foundation of National Natural Science Foundation (61605202).


  1. [1]
    J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the thirty meter telescope project,” SPIE, 2008, 7012: 70121A-1-70121A-18.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    M. Johns, P. Mccarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. Filgueira, et al., “Giant magellan telescope: overview,” SPIE, 2012, 8444: 84441H-1-84441H-16.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    T. Hull, M. J. Riso, J. M. Barentine, and A. Magruder, “Mid-spatial frequency matters: examples of the control of the power spectral density and what that means to the performance of imaging systems,” SPIE, 2012, 8353: 835329-1-835329-17.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    D. W. Kim and J. H. Burge, “Rigid conformal polishing tool using non-linear visco-elastic effect,” Optics Express, 2010, 18(3): 2242–2257.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-mf/1 mirror,” SPIE, 1990, 1236: 682–690.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. H. Burge, B. Anderson, S. Benjamin, M. K. Cho, K. Z. Smith, and M. J. Valente, “Development of optimal grinding and polishing tools for aspheric surfaces,” SPIE, 1990, 4451: 153–164.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Y. Shu, X. Nie, F. Shi, and S. Li, “Compare study between smoothing efficiencies of epicyclic motion and orbital motion,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, 2014, 125(16): 4441–4445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    N. J. Brown, P. C. Baker, and R. E. Parks, “Polishing-to-figuring transition in turned optics,” Contemporary Methods of Optical Fabrication, 1981, 306(6): 58–65.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    R. A. Jones, “Computer simulation of smoothing during computer-controlled optical polishing,” Applied Optics, 1995, 34(7): 1162–1169.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    P. K. Mehta and P. B. Reid, “Mathematical model for optical smoothing prediction of high-spatial- frequency surface errors,” SPIE, 1999, 3786: 447–459.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. T. Tuell, J. H. Burge, and B. Anderson. “Aspheric optics: Smoothing the ripples with semi-flexible tools,” Optical Engineering, 2002, 15(2): 1473–1474.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    D. W. Kim, W. H. Park, H. K. An, and J. H. Burge, “Parametric smoothing model for visco-elastic polishing tools,” Optics Express, 2010, 18(21): 22515–22526.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Y. Shu, D. W. Kim, H. M. Martin, and J. H. Burge, “Correlation-based smoothing model for optical polishing,” Optics Express, 2013, 21(23): 28771–28782.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Y. Shu, X. Nie, F. Shi, and S. Li, “Smoothing evolution model for computer controlled optical surfacing,” Journal of Optical Technology, 2014, 81(3): 164–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    X. Nie, S. Li, F. Shi, and H. Hu, “Generalized numerical pressure distribution model for smoothing polishing of irregular midspatial frequency errors,” Applied Optics, 2014, 53(6): 1020–1027.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    A. C. Fischer-Cripps, “Multiple-frequency dynamic nanoindentation testing,” Journal of Materials Research, 2004, 19(19): 2981–2988.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. H. Burge, D. W. Kim, and H. M. Martin, “Process optimization for polishing large aspheric mirrors,” SPIE, 2014, 9151: 91512R-1-91512R-13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chi Song
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xuejun Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xin Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haifei Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xuefeng Zeng
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing TechnologyChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations