Neurotherapeutics

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 372–384 | Cite as

Brain Cancer Stem Cells in Adults and Children: Cell Biology and Therapeutic Implications

  • Tamara J. Abou-Antoun
  • James S. Hale
  • Justin D. Lathia
  • Stephen M. Dombrowski
Review

Abstract

Brain tumors represent some of the most malignant cancers in both children and adults. Current treatment options target the majority of tumor cells but do not adequately target self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been reported to resist the most aggressive radiation and chemotherapies, and give rise to recurrent, treatment-resistant secondary malignancies. With advancing technologies, we now have a better understanding of the genetic, epigenetic and molecular signatures and microenvironmental influences which are useful in distinguishing between distinctly different tumor subtypes. As a result, efforts are now underway to identify and target CSCs within various tumor subtypes based on this foundation. This review discusses progress in CSC biology as it relates to targeted therapies which may be uniquely different between pediatric and adult brain tumors. Studies to date suggest that pediatric brain tumors may benefit more from genetic and epigenetic targeted therapies, while combination treatments aimed specifically at multiple molecular pathways may be more effective in treating adult brain tumors which seem to have a greater propensity towards microenvironmental interactions. Ultimately, CSC targeting approaches in combination with current clinical therapies have the potential to be more effective owing to their ability to compromise CSCs maintenance and the mechanisms which underlie their highly aggressive and deadly nature.

Keywords

Cancer stem cells Childhood brain tumors Glioblastoma Epigenetics Microenvironment Therapeutic implications 

Supplementary material

13311_2017_524_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 1(PDF 1224 kb)

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Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamara J. Abou-Antoun
    • 1
  • James S. Hale
    • 2
  • Justin D. Lathia
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Stephen M. Dombrowski
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesLebanese American UniversityByblosLebanon
  2. 2.Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Lerner Research InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at CaseWestern Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Case Comprehensive Cancer CenterClevelandUSA
  5. 5.Department of Neurological Surgery, Section of Pediatric Neurosurgical Oncology, Neurological InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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