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Table 4 Table of observations of adaptation and future resilience

From: Using traditional ecological knowledge to understand and adapt to climate and biodiversity change on the Pacific coast of North America

ObservationChanges seenImpactsResponsesExample participant perspective
Harvesting+ Different weather changes patterns and timing of resources
+ Stormier—harder to get out when things are ripe
+ Harder to harvest+ People have less resources‘It’s hard to get out sometimes, you know, I know when I was expecting it to be there…and when I went looking for it, it was already gone…plus gas, you know, we gotta go check on it’ (MY, Craig)
Processing+ Drying food harder because of lack of sunny days
+ Freezers changed timing of when could preserve food—reduced need for immediate preservation, wait for good weather
+ Drying salmon inside using heaters and fans
+ Harder to process+ Novel ways to process
+ Using freezers more
‘I’ve talked to many people, and they say it just can’t be done, but I know it can be done…I, worked with it now until I got it down to a fine art…there’s a temperature gauge on the outside of my smokehouse with a sensor that runs…on the same elevation as my screens…I got screens I put the halibut on…I got to get the temperature up to…120° [48.9 °C] I start timing it, and it take[s] 25 min, and at the end of 25 min I open my door, I put a fan on, and I cut the heat down on…and so I draw the temperature down, and preferably, ah, a 100° [37.7 °C], and not lower than 80 [26.7 °C]…but try to keep it 90–100° [32.2–37.7 °C] in there, and just stay that way until it’s done’ (AG, Hoonah)
Co-management+ Some positive
Alaskan Government and Hoonah Tribe –to authorize renewal of bird egg harvest in Glacier National Park according changing environmental constraints
+ Co-management of salmon between Alaska and Hydaburg tribal governments
+ Old resources being re-opened
+ Local knowledge taken into consideration in management
+ Some people excited about these changes‘I run the management program for the sockeye fishery that we have for subsistence food fish here…and um…we’ve had some real good years, and some bad years, our community, uh, gets grants to help facilitate managing a weir, and uh, getting a fish count and tallying our subsistence take, and so we’ve been basically co-managing that fishery, uh, and we noticed that over the course of the years of that program, the trends in when the populations, uh, when [the] genetically different populations came into the rivers, so that there were distinct populations that had, uh, you know, they didn’t cross breed with each other, they come in June, they come in July, and they come in late August and September, so there are three distinct populations…and that was all sockeye, in a lake system…and so we had, we started to manage them, as three separate stocks, rather than one stock…cause we could overfish the early run, and basically take out the early run…and that’s what had happened, we had depleted the early run down through several years of fishing, being excited that that’s when they come in, and fished them down to nothing, and so our information gave us the tools to, uh, take the pressure off that stock, to ask community members to back off on fishing in June, and, uh, without having to go to the regulatory body and say hey, change this…we’ve already been regulated enough as natives, we don’t need to go to that…self-regulation’s a lot easier…because then you’re taking ownership and you’re changing behaviour, and that’s going to uh, impact and ensure longevity and sustainability of resources in your fishery’ (AC, Hydaburg)
People part of climate change+ Lifestyles in remote communities very energy intensive and costly
“Social Climate Change”
+ Costs of harvesting (e.g. fuel) becoming prohibitive+ People looking at ways to alleviate energy stress‘The thing that’s changing is the social change… our people used to depend on gathering, processing fish, smoking fish, smoking deer meat, seal meat and that, but now it’s not [the same]’ (KG, Hoonah)