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Table 2 Table of observed changes in the landscape

From: Using traditional ecological knowledge to understand and adapt to climate and biodiversity change on the Pacific coast of North America

ObservationChanges seenImpactsResponsesExample participant perspective
Glaciers and sea ice+ Less floating ice
+ Sea glaciers have retreated onto the land
+ Warmer temperatures
+ Less water available in the spring, glacial melt in streams
+ Adaptation on techniques to moderate water levels in streams‘Now there ain’t enough ice to make a cocktail, there’s nothing’ (AG, Hoonah)
Isostatic rebound+ More in Alaska, esp. northern Southeast
+ Coastal bays getting shallower
+ Boats being damaged, motors hitting rocks
+ Less floating ice
+ Moving boat moorage sites
+ Changing travel routes
‘With the ice receding, the land has risen quite a bit’ (AG, Hoonah)
‘You could walk across to Graveyard Island, and when I was a kid they used to anchor seine boats there!’ (AG, Hoonah)
‘There’s some places up the bay where I used to run in and out of, oh I ran through there, it’s shallow here! You know, it’s getting shallower…that’s uplift…and it is climate change, it’s a long one, the glaciers are retreating’ (KG, Hoonah)
Tide Levels+ Higher tide levels
+ Increased number of ‘high’ high tides (yearly maximum high tides)
+ Losing land (under water)
+ Harder to harvest clams, cockles, and other beach resources
+ Moving houses/usage areas‘Our culture camp, the tides have taken out so much of the gravel there, there’s hardly any grounds left on the camp, you know, it’s being washed out so much…so it seems like the tides are bigger…it’s been washed away a lot, and where our camp used to be, a big area…of the beach, [is] receding” (RDe, Kake)
Erosion+ Due to heavier rainfall
+ Decreased plant cover from deforestation
+ Beach erosion from higher tides
+ Plants and soil washed away
+ Shoreline changing (in conjunction with deposition, Old Massett)
+ Adjusting uses and access to the area‘So there’s been erosion, there was two contributing factors to that, they did dig up our sandbar, and pulled a bunch of sand out of there, but also I believe the water is rising slightly’ (AC, Hydaburg)