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Table 1 Table of basic weather observations

From: Using traditional ecological knowledge to understand and adapt to climate and biodiversity change on the Pacific coast of North America

ObservationChanges seenImpactsResponsesExample participant perspective
Snow+ Overall decrease since 40–60 years ago
+ Some isolated years—major snowfall
+ Less available water for plants, animals, streams, etc. from snow melt
+ In extreme years, species no longer adapted for cold temperatures
+ Altering harvesting patterns to adjust to yearly fluctuations due to changing weather patterns‘Before snow come to eves of roof—now barely snow in a year’ (CB, Hoonah)
Sun+ Fewer sunny days+ Harder to dry food because of lack of sunny days+ Drying indoors or with fans, or stoves
+ Freezing seaweed until there is favourable weather
‘Used to get good sunshine in summertime’ (Mho, Hoonah)
Rain+ More rain overall
+ More heavy rain events
+ Washouts and mudslides+ Harvest in other places, repair areas‘I’d say…about 30 years ago or so…there’d be a good summer and a bum summer, and it finally went to…now it’s just too much rain’ (AG, Hoonah)
Temperature+ Air and water getting warmer+ Changing the behaviours and distributions of animals and plants
+ Sun is hotter now when out
+ Travelling further to get things
+ Adapting harvesting patterns
+ People getting sunburned
‘It used to freeze outside… before we had really freezers, you know, so I know it’s a lot warmer, there’s not as much snow; if there is snow, it [soon] rains and it disappears’ (RDe, Kake)
Storms+ Becoming more unpredictable and frequent+ People don’t know when the weather will stay fine to make it safe to stay out harvesting, or even know when they will be able to go harvest at all+ People delay harvesting, and miss opportunity, or risk going out and getting caught in inclement weather‘I think there’s usually some overlap, and some set back–might go a couple of weeks thinking ‘alright we’re in the heart of spring,’ and then all of a sudden it gets cold, and some snow falls, and there’s a storm’ (AC, Hydaburg)