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Ambio

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 657–670 | Cite as

A review of regulations and guidelines related to winter manure application

  • Jian Liu
  • Peter J. A. Kleinman
  • Helena Aronsson
  • Don Flaten
  • Richard W. McDowell
  • Marianne Bechmann
  • Douglas B. Beegle
  • Timothy P. Robinson
  • Ray B. Bryant
  • Hongbin Liu
  • Andrew N. Sharpley
  • Tamie L. Veith
Review
  • 223 Downloads

Abstract

Winter manure application elevates nutrient losses and impairment of water quality as compared to manure applications in other seasons. In conjunction with reviewing global distribution of animal densities, we reviewed worldwide mandatory regulations and voluntary guidelines on efforts to reduce off-site nutrient losses associated with winter manure applications. Most of the developed countries implement regulations or guidelines to restrict winter manure application, which range from a regulative ban to guidelines based upon weather and field management conditions. In contrast, developing countries lack such official directives, despite an increasing animal production industry and concern over water quality. An analysis of five case studies reveals that directives are derived from a common rationale to reduce off-site manure nutrient losses, but they are also affected by local socio-economic and biophysical considerations. Successful programs combine site-specific management strategies along with expansion of manure storage to offer farmers greater flexibility in winter manure management.

Keywords

Animal production Eutrophication Manure management regulations Nutrient management Winter manure application 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Nina Bonnelycke (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and Don Meals (Tetra Tech Inc.) for sharing their draft summary of state program requirements for winter application of manure in the U.S., and Chris Ullmann (Alberta Department of Agriculture and Forestry) for sharing the unpublished report of directives on winter application of manure in Canada. The authors also thank Amy Shober (University of Delaware), Thomas Basden (West Virginia University), Richard Meinert (University of Connecticut), Karl Czymmek (Cornell University), Joshua McGrath (University of Kentucky), and Daniel Geisseler (University of California, Davis) for providing information related to winter manure directives in their states. Gary Shenk (U.S. Geological Survey) kindly provided the original data for mapping the production of manure nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Anthony Buda (U.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service) provided helpful insights on issues related to weather. This publication was developed under Assistance Agreement No. RD 83556801-0 awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It has not been formally reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by any of the authors’ organization or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. All entities involved are equal opportunity providers and employers.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (ZIP 134 kb)

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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian Liu
    • 1
  • Peter J. A. Kleinman
    • 2
  • Helena Aronsson
    • 3
  • Don Flaten
    • 4
  • Richard W. McDowell
    • 5
  • Marianne Bechmann
    • 6
  • Douglas B. Beegle
    • 1
  • Timothy P. Robinson
    • 7
  • Ray B. Bryant
    • 2
  • Hongbin Liu
    • 8
  • Andrew N. Sharpley
    • 9
  • Tamie L. Veith
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencePennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research UnitU.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research ServiceUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Soil and EnvironmentSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  4. 4.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  5. 5.AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural CentreMosgielNew Zealand
  6. 6.Division for Environment and Natural ResourcesNorwegian Institute of Bioeconomy ResearchÅsNorway
  7. 7.Livestock Information, Sector Analysis and Policy BranchFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsRomeItaly
  8. 8.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  9. 9.Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental ScienceUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

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