Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003–2015
- 719 Downloads
Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.
KeywordsAbandoned, lost or discarded fishing gear Fisheries Marine pollution Pacific Ocean Plastic pollution
The authors would like to acknowledge the support, co-operation and communication of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) in helping to better understand the nature of these pollution incidents and work towards achievable solutions to mitigate this problem.
- Ballance, A., P.G. Ryan, and J. Turpie. 2000. How much is a clean beach worth? The impact of litter on beach users in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 96: 210–213.Google Scholar
- GEF-CReW. 2015. Caribbean regional fund for wastewater management, GEF-CReW (Global Environment Facility Caribbean Regional Fund for Wastewater Management). Retrieved July 6, 2015 from www.gefcrew.org/.
- GESAMP (Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution). 1991. The state of the marine environment. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
- Greenpeace. 2015. Greenpeace warns of proposals that would pave the way for large increases in fishing capacity-Greenpeace Briefing to the 19th Annual Meeting of the IOTC. 19th Annual Meeting of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Busan, Korea, 27 April-1 May, 2015. IOTC-2015-S19-NGO04.Google Scholar
- Hall, K. 2000. Impacts of marine debris and oil: Economic and social costs to coastal communities-report published by Kommunenes Internasjonale Kommunenes Internasjonale Miljøorganisasjon (KIMO), c/o Shetland Islands Council, Environment and Transportation Department, Grantfield, Lerwick, Shetland, ZE1 0NT, ISBN 0904562891.Google Scholar
- IMO. 2015. International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships (MARPOL). Retrieved July 6, 2015 from www.imo.org/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International-Convention-for-the-Prevention-of-Pollution-from-Ships-(MARPOL).aspx.
- IMO. 2015. Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from www.imo.org/en/OurWork/environment/pollutionprevention/garbage/Pages/Default.aspx.
- IMO. 2015. Status of conventions. Retrieved July 10, 2015 from http://www.imo.org/en/About/Conventions/StatusOfConventions/Pages/Default.aspx.
- Katsanevakis, S. 2008. Marine debris, a growing problem: Sources, distribution, composition, and impacts. In Marine pollution: New research, ed. T.N. Hofer, 53–100. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
- Laist, D.W. 1997. Impacts of marine debris: Entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In Marine debris sources, impacts, and solutions, ed. J.M. Coe, and D. Rogers, 81–97. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Leggett, C., N. Sherer, M. Curry, R. Bailey, and T. Haab. 2014. Assessing the economic benefits of reductions in marine debris: A pilot study of beach recreation in Orange County, California-report for marine debris division, national oceanic and atmospheric administration. Industrial Economics, Incorporated, Cambridge, MA, USA.Google Scholar
- Macfadyen, G., T. Huntington, and R. Cappell. 2009. Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 185; FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, No. 523. Rome, UNEP/FAO.Google Scholar
- Øhlenschlæger, J.P., S. Newman, and A. Farmer. 2013. Reducing ship generated marine litter—recommendations to improve the EU port reception facilities directive-report produced for seas at risk. London: Institute for European Environmental Policy.Google Scholar
- Sagapolutele, F. 2015. FAD found at Fagaalu Bay destroyed fragile coral, Samoa News. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from http://www.samoanews.com/content/en/fad-found-fagaalu-bay-destroyed-fragile-coral.
- Sherrington, C., C. Pitts-Tucker, and D. Hogg. 2014. Report II: Marine Debris and commercial vessel best practice-report for the secretariat of the convention on migratory species, 18th meeting of the scientific council, Bonn, Germany. Bristol: Eunomia Research & Consulting Ltd.Google Scholar
- Schlining, K., S. von Thun, L. Kuhnz, B. Schlining, L. Lundsten, N.J. Stout, L. Chaney, and J. Connor. 2013. Debris in the deep: Using a 22-year video annotation database to survey marine litter in Monterey Canyon, central California, USA. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 79: 96–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- SPC. 2010. Purse seine, tuna fisheries, oceanic fisheries programme. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from www.spc.int/Oceanfish/en/tuna-fisheries/172-purse-seine.
- SPREP. 2014. World-first shipping plan to deliver cleaner oceans for the Pacific Region, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from http://www.sprep.org/waste-management-pollution-control/world-first-shipping-plan-to-deliver-cleaner-oceans-for-the-pacific-region.
- UNEP. 2009. Marine litter: A global challenge. Nairobi: UNEP.Google Scholar
- UNEP. 2014. Valuing plastics: The business case for measuring, managing and disclosing plastic use in the consumer goods industry.Google Scholar
- Watkins E., P. ten Brink, S. Withana, K. Mutafoglu, J-P. Schweitzer, D. Russi, and M. Kettunen. 2015. Marine litter: Socio-economic study. Scoping Report, London.Google Scholar
- WCPFC. 2009. Fisheries to be monitored-report for regional observer programme third intercessional working group, Guam, 17th to 21st March, 2009. WCPFC/ROP-IWG3/2009-08. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.Google Scholar
- WCPFC. 2010. Conservation and management measure to establish a list of vessels presumed to have carried out illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities in the WCPO-report for seventh regular session, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 6–10 December, 2010. Conservation and Management Measure 2010-06. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.Google Scholar
- WCPFC. 2014. Status of observer data management-report for technical and compliance committee tenth regular session, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, 25–30 September, 2014. WCPFC-TCC10-2014-IP05. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.Google Scholar
- WCPFC. 2015. Tuna fishery yearbook 2014. Oceanic Fisheries programme, secretariat of the pacific community, Noumea, New Caledonia. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.Google Scholar
- Winston, J.E., M.R. Gregory, and L.M. Stevens. 1997. Encrusters, epibionts, and other biota associated with pelagic plastics: A review of biogeographical, environmental and conservation issues. In Marine debris sources, impacts, and solutions, ed. J.M. Coe, and D. Rogers, 81–97. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Animal Protection. 2014. Fishing’s phantom menace: How ghost fishing gear is endangering our sea life. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from www.worldanimalprotection.us.org/sites/default/files/us_files/sea-change-tackling-ghost-fishing-gear-report_us.pdf.
- Zettler, E.R., T.J. Mincer, and L.A. Amaral-Zettler. 2013. Life in the “Plastisphere”: Microbial communities on plastic marine debris. Environmental Science and Technology 47: 7137–7146.Google Scholar