Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11
- 433 Downloads
Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines’ current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines’ land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created.
KeywordsBirds CBD Key biodiversity areas Management plans Philippines
- Anon. 2012. Action plan for implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Programme of Work on Protected Areas: Philippines. Submitted to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity on 31 May 2012. www.cbd.int/database/attachment/?id=1659. Accessed 26 March 2015.
- BirdLife International. 2012. The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world, with conservation status and taxonomic sources, 5. www.birdlife.info/im/species/checklist.zip.
- Catibog-Sinha, C.S., and L.R. Heaney. 2006. Philippine biodiversity: Principles and practice. Quezon City: Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources Inc. ISBN 971-93352-6-2.Google Scholar
- Collar, N.J., N.A.D. Mallari, and B.R. Tabaranza. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines. Manila: Bookmark Inc, in conjunction with the Haribon Foundation.Google Scholar
- Conservation International Philippines, Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, & Haribon Foundation. 2006. Priority sites for conservation in the Philippines: Key biodiversity areas. Quezon City: Conservation International Philippines.Google Scholar
- Danielsen, F., A.E. Jensen, P.A. Alviola, D.S. Balete, M. Mendoza, A. Tagtag, C. Custodio, and M. Enghoff. 2005. Does monitoring matter? A quantitative assessment of management decisions from locally-based monitoring of protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2633–2652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DENR/UNEP. 1997. Philippine biodiversity: An assessment and action plan. Manila: Bookmark Inc.Google Scholar
- Guiang, E.S., and G.C. Braganza. 2014. National management effectiveness and capacity assessment of protected areas in the Philippines. Manila: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit.Google Scholar
- Lee, D. 2005. Improving methods for conservation-based assessments of abundance and habitat use in tropical forest birds. PhD Thesis. Manchester, UK: Manchester Metropolitan University.Google Scholar
- Mallari, N.A.D. 2009. Maximising the value of ecological and socioeconomic data in support of conservation planning for key understorey bird species in Palawan, Philippines. PhD Thesis, Manchester, UK: Manchester Metropolitan University.Google Scholar
- Mallari, N.A.D., B.R. Tabaranza, and M.J. Crosby. 2001. Key conservation sites in the Philippines: A Haribon Foundation & BirdLife International directory of Important Bird Areas. Makati City: Bookmark Inc.Google Scholar
- Mallari, N.A.D., M.J. Crosby, and N.J. Collar. 2004. Unexplored Philippine forests as revealed by point-locality mapping. Forktail 20: 124–128.Google Scholar
- Ong, P.S., L.E. Afuang, and R.G. Rosell-Ambal (eds.). 2002. Philippine biodiversity conservation priorities: A second iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Quezon City: Department of Environment and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
- Stattersfield, A.J., M.J. Crosby, A.J. Long, and D.C. Wege. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the world: Priorities for biodiversity conservation. Cambridge: BirdLife International.Google Scholar
- Stolton, S., M. Hockings, N. Dudley, K. MacKinnon, and T. Whitten. 2003. Reporting progress in protected areas: A site-level management effectiveness tracking tool. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Woodley, S., B. Bettzky, N. Crawhall, N. Dudley, J.M. Londoño, K. MacKinnon, K. Redford, and T. Sandwith. 2012. Meeting Aichi target 11: What does success look like for protected area systems? Parks 18: 23–36.Google Scholar