, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 230–240 | Cite as

Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain

  • Antonella Rivera
  • Stefan Gelcich
  • Lucía García-Flórez
  • José Luis Acuña


The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems’ sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity.


Adaptive capacity Sustainability Social–ecological system Change Gooseneck barnacle 



We would like to thank the Asturian cofradías for their continuous support. Jorge Sostres provided logistic support during the focus groups, Ricardo González-Gil provided information on statistical analysis techniques and Manuel Llorca delivered valuable comments for this manuscript. This work was financed by the Spanish Government through project DOSMARES (CTM2010-21810-C03-02, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain). Fishery data were provided by the Dirección General de Pesca Marítima del Principado de Asturias. AR is supported by an FPU fellowship (Ministerio de Educación de España, Grant no. AP2010-5376). SG thanks CONICYT Basal FB-0002, nucleo-milenio initiatives RC130004 and NC-120086 from the Ministerio de Economia, and The Pew Marine Conservation Fellowship Program. This is a contribution of the Asturias Marine Observatory.

Supplementary material

13280_2015_687_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (285 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 285 kb)


  1. Armitage, D.R., R. Plummer, F. Berkes, R.I. Arthur, A.T. Charles, I.J. Davidson-Hunt, A.P. Diduck, N.C. Doubleday, et al. 2009. Adaptive co-management for social–ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes, M. 1996. Pedunculate cirripedes of the genus Pollicipes. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 34: 303–394.Google Scholar
  3. Berkes, F., J. Colding, and C. Folke. 2003. Navigating socialecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and change, 393 pp. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berkes, F. 2006. From community-based resource management to complex systems: The scale issue and marine commons. Ecology and Society 11: 45.Google Scholar
  5. Berkes, F. 2009. Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 1692–1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chatfield, C. 2013. The analysis of time series: An introduction, 326 pp. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cinner, J.E., C. Folke, T. Daw, and C.C. Hicks. 2011. Responding to change: Using scenarios to understand how socioeconomic factors may influence amplifying or dampening exploitation feedbacks among Tanzanian fishers. Global Environmental Change 21: 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cinner, J.E., T.R. McClanahan, M.A. MacNeil, N.A. Graham, T.M. Daw, A. Mukminin, D.A. Feary, A.L. Rabearisoa, et al. 2012. Comanagement of coral reef social–ecological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 5219–5222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costanza, R., F. Andrade, P. Antunes, M. van den Belt, D. Boersma, D.F. Boesch, F. Catarino, S. Hanna, et al. 1998. Principles for sustainable governance of the oceans. Science 281: 198–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De la Hoz, J., and L. Garcıa. 1993. Data for the study of gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes cornucopiae (Leach) distribution and reproduction in Asturias, 65–71. Publicación Especial, Insituto. Español de Oceanografía (in Spanish).Google Scholar
  11. Fernandez-Villaverde, J., and L.E. Ohanian. 2010. The Spanish crisis from a global perspective. Madrid: FEDEA.Google Scholar
  12. Folke, C. 2006. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change 16: 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Folke, C., S. Carpenter, T. Elmqvist, L. Gunderson, C.S. Holling, and B. Walker. 2002. Resilience and sustainable development: Building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. Ambio 31: 437–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fox, J. 2009. Effect displays in R for multinomial and proportional-odds logit models: Extensions to the effects package. Journal of Statistical Software 32: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fulton, E.A., A.D. Smith, D.C. Smith, and I.E. van Putten. 2011. Human behaviour: The key source of uncertainty in fisheries management. Fish and Fisheries 12: 2–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garcia, S., and D. Staples. 2000. Sustainability reference systems and indicators for responsible marine capture fisheries: A review of concepts and elements for a set of guidelines. Marine & Freshwater Research 51: 385–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. García-de-la-Fuente, L., J. González-Álvarez, L. García-Flórez, P. Fernández-Rueda, and J. Alcázar-Álvarez. 2013. Relevance of socioeconomic information for the sustainable management of artisanal fisheries in South Europe. A characterization study of the Asturian artisanal fleet (northern Spain). Ocean and Coastal Management 86: 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gardner, R., E. Ostrom, and J.M. Walker. 1990. The nature of common-pool resource problems. Rationality and Society 2: 335–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gelcich, S. 2014. Towards polycentric governance of small-scale fisheries: Insights from the new management plans policy in Chile. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 24: 575–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gelcich, S., M.J. Kaiser, J.C. Castilla, and G. Edwards-Jones. 2008. Engagement in co-management of marine benthic resources influences environmental perceptions of artisanal fishers. Environmental Conservation 35: 36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. INDUROT, Gobierno del Principado de Asturias: Consejería de Medio Rural y Pesca and Universidad de Oviedo. 2010. Socioeconomic analysis and characterization of the Asturian fishing fleet, 153 pp. PRESPO: Desarrollo sostenible de las pesquerías del artesanales del arco Atlántico (in Spanish).Google Scholar
  22. Gutiérrez, N.L., R. Hilborn, and O. Defeo. 2011. Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 470: 386–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Macho, G., I. Naya, J. Freire, S. Villasante, and J. Molares. 2013. The key role of the Barefoot Fisheries Advisors in the co-managed TURF System of Galicia (NW Spain). Ambio 42: 1057–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mahon, R., P. McConney, and R.N. Roy. 2008. Governing fisheries as complex adaptive systems. Marine Policy 32: 104–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Markowitz, H.M. 1970. Portfolio selection: Efficient diversification of investments. New York: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action, 281 pp. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Pauly, D., V. Christensen, S. Guénette, T.J. Pitcher, U.R. Sumaila, C.J. Walters, R. Watson, and D. Zeller. 2002. Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418: 689–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pinkerton, E. 1989. Co-operative management of local fisheries: New directions for improved management and community development, 312 pp. Canada: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  29. Pomeroy, R.S., B.M. Katon, and I. Harkes. 2001. Conditions affecting the success of fisheries co-management: Lessons from Asia. Marine Policy 25: 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. R Development Core Team. 2012. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
  31. Rivera, A., S. Gelcich, L. García-Florez, J.L. Alcázar, and J.L. Acuña. 2014. Co-management in Europe: Insights from the gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias, Spain. Marine Policy 50(Part A): 300–308.Google Scholar
  32. Schrank, W.E. 1995. Extended Fisheries Jurisdiction: Origins of the current crisis in Atlantic Canada’s fisheries. Marine Policy 19: 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schumann, S. 2007. Co-management and “consciousness”: Fishers’ assimilation of management principles in Chile. Marine Policy 31: 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tuler, S., J. Agyeman, P.P. da Silva, K.R. LoRusso, and R. Kay. 2008. Assessing vulnerabilities: Integrating information about driving forces that affect risks and resilience in fishing communities. Human Ecology Review 15: 171–184.Google Scholar
  35. Venables, W., and B. Ripley. 2002. Modern applied statistics with S, 498 pp. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  36. Wood, S.N. 2003. Thin plate regression splines. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) 65: 95–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wood, S. 2006. Generalized additive models: An introduction with R, 383 pp. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.Google Scholar
  38. Worm, B., R. Hilborn, J.K. Baum, T.A. Branch, J.S. Collie, C. Costello, M.J. Fogarty, E.A. Fulton, et al. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325: 578–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonella Rivera
    • 1
  • Stefan Gelcich
    • 2
  • Lucía García-Flórez
    • 3
  • José Luis Acuña
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología de Organismos y SistemasUniversidad de OviedoOviedoSpain
  2. 2.Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES) & Centro de Conservación Marina, Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias BiológicasPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  3. 3.Centro de Experimentación Pesquera, Consejería de Agroganadería y Recursos Autóctonos del Principado de AsturiasGijónSpain

Personalised recommendations