, Volume 43, Issue 8, pp 1029–1046 | Cite as

Ganges River Dolphin: An Overview of Biology, Ecology, and Conservation Status in India

  • Ravindra K. Sinha
  • Kurunthachalam Kannan


Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica, is one of the three obligatory freshwater dolphins in the world and is distributed in the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna and Sangu–Karnaphuli River systems in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. This species is facing considerable threats to its survival, and its population has dwindled from 4000 to 5000 in the early 1980s to 3500 in 2014 in the distribution range. This article reviews current status of the sub-species, habitat use, and the potential threats that the dolphins face for their survival (details of taxonomic status and genetics, evolutionary adaptations and anatomical peculiarities, physical adaptation, primitive characteristics, biology, behavior, surfacing behavior and dive times, mating and birth, and life span/age have been placed as Electronic Supplementary Materials). Recommendations have been made for the protection and developing strategies for the conservation of this Endangered and endemic sub-species.


Ganges River dolphin Conservation Population Endangered species 

Supplementary material

13280_2014_534_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (328 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 286 kb)


  1. Alam, S.M.I., and N.J. Sarker. 2012. Status and distribution of the Gangetic dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica (Roxburgh, 1801) in River Burhiganga during 2003–2004 and its conservation. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 40: 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcamo, J., D. van Vuuren, and W. Cramer. 2005. Changes in ecosystem services and their drivers across the scenarios. Anonymous Scenarios, 297–373. Washington, DC: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. 1879. Anatomical and Zoological researches: Comprising an account of zoological results of the two expeditions to western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875; and a monograph of the two cetacean genera Platanista and Orcella. London, UK: Bernard Quaritich.Google Scholar
  4. Babel, M.S., and S.W. Wahid. 2008. Freshwater under threat: South Asia. United Nations Environment Program, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  5. Basir, T., A. Khan, P. Gautam, and S.K. Behra. 2010. Abundance and prey availability assessment of Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in a stretch of Upper Ganges River, India. Aquatic Mammals 36: 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bairagi, S.P., S.C. Dey, and R.S.L. Mohan. 1997. The status of a resident population of Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in Kulsi River of north east India. Tiger Paper 24(2): 11–13.Google Scholar
  7. Baird, I.G., and I. Beaseley. 2005. Irrawaddy dolphin Orcaella brevirostris in the Cambodian Mekong River: An initial survey. Oryx 39: 301–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bearzi, G., A. Azzellino, E. Politi, M. Costa, and M. Bastianini. 2008. Influence of seasonal forcing on habitat use by bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncates in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Ocean Science Journal 43: 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Behera, S.K.1995. Studies on Population Dynamics, Habitat Utilization and Conservation Aspects of Gangetic Dolphins (Platanista gangetica) in a Stretch of Ganga River from Rishikesh to Kanpur. PhD Thesis, Gwalior: School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University.Google Scholar
  10. Behera, S.K., and R.J. Rao. 1999. Observations on the behaviour of Gangetic dolphin Platanista gangetica in the Upper Ganga River. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96: 42–48.Google Scholar
  11. Biswas, S.P., and S. Boruah. 2000. Ecology of river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in the Upper Brahmaputra. Hydrobiology 430: 97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borchers, D.L., S.T. Buckland, and W. Zucchini. 2002. Estimating animal abundance: Closed populations. London: Springer. 314 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braulik, G. 2006. Status assessment of Indus River dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor, March–April 2001. Biological Conservation 129: 579–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Braulik, G., Z.I. Bhatti, T. Ehsan, B. Hussain, A.R. Khan, A. Khan, U. Khan, K.U. Kundli, R. Rajput, A.P. Reichert, S.P. Northridge, H.B. Bhagat, and R. Garstang. 2012a. Robust abundance estimate for endangered river dolphin subspecies in South Asia. Endangered Species Research 17: 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Braulik, G., A.P. Reichert, T. Ehsan, S. Khan, S.P. Northridge, J.S. Alexander, and R. Garstang. 2012b. Habitat use by a freshwater dolphin in the low-water season. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystem 22: 533–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Braum, J.L., and B. Worm. 2009. Cascading top-down effects of changing oceanic predator abundances. Journal of Animal Ecology 78: 699–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyce, J.K. 1990. Birth of a megaproject: political economy of flood control in Bangladesh. Environmental Management 14: 158–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caňadas, A., R. Sagarminaga, and S. Garcia-Tiscar. 2002. Cetacean distribution related with depth and slope in the Mediterranean waters off southern Spain. Deep Sea Research 49: 2053–2073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Choudhary, S.K., B.D. Smith, S. Dey, S. Dey, and S. Prakash. 2006. Conservation and biomonitoring in the Vikramshila Gangetic dolphin sanctuary, Bihar, India. Oryx 40: 189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Choudhary, S., S. Dey, S. Dey, V. Sagar, G. Nair, and N. Kelkar. 2012. River dolphin distribution in regulated river system; implications for dry season flow regimes in the Gangetic basin. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22(1): 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crook, D.A., A.I. Robertson, A.J. King, and P. Humphries. 2001. The influence of spatial scale and habitat arrangement on diel patterns of habitat use of two low land river fishes. Oecologia 129: 525–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis, R.W., J.G. Ortega-Ortiz, C.A. Ribic, W.E. Evans, D.C. Biggs, P.H. Ressler, R.B. Cady, R.R. Leben, K.D. Mullin, and B. Wursig. 2002. Cetacean habitat in the northern oceanic Gulf of Mexico. Deep Sea Research 49: 212–242.Google Scholar
  23. Foley, J.A., R. Defries, G.P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S.R. Carpenter, F.S. Chapin, M.T. Col, G.C. Daily, and H.K. Gibbs. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309: 570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Furness, R.W., and K.C.J. Camphuysen. 1997. Seabirds as monitors of the marine environment. ICES Journal of Marine Science 54: 726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gomez-Salazar, C., M. Coll, and H. Whitehead. 2012. River dolphins as indicators of ecosystem degradation in large tropical rivers. Ecological Indicators 23: 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gregr, E.J., and A.W. Trites. 2001. Predictions of critical habitat for five whale species in the waters of coastal British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 1265–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hammond, P.S. 2009. Mark-recapture. In Encyclopedia of marine mammals, 2nd ed, ed. W.F. Perrin, B. Wursig, and J.G.M. Thewissen, 705–709. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haque, A. K. M. A. 1976. Comments on the abundance and distribution of the Ganges susu Platanista gangetica and the effects of the Farakka barrage on its population. FAO, ACMRR, Scientific Consultation on Marine Mammals, ACMRR/MM/SC/132.Google Scholar
  29. Haque, A.K.M.A., M. Nishiwaki, T. Kasuya, and T. Tobayama. 1997. Observations on the behaviour and other biological aspects of the Ganges susu, Platanista gangetica. The Scientific Report of Whales Research Institute 29: 87–94.Google Scholar
  30. Heithans, M.R., A. Frid, A.J. Wirsing, and B. Worm. 2008. Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23: 202–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. IUCN. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 448 pp.Google Scholar
  32. IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List categories and criteria: version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  33. IWC (International Whaling Commission). 2000. Report of the standing sub-committee on small cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1(Supplement): 211–225.Google Scholar
  34. Jerdon, T.C. 1874. The mammals of India; a natural history of all animals known to inhabit continental India, 335. London: J. Wheldon.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, S. 1982. The present status of the Gangetic susu, Platanista gangetica (Roxburgh), with comments on the Indus susu, Platanista minor Owen. FAO Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research Working Party on Marine Mammals. FAO Fish. Ser. (5) 4: 97–115.Google Scholar
  36. Kannan, K., R.K. Sinha, S. Tanabe, H. Ichihashi, and R. Tatsukawa. 1993. Heavy metals and organochlorine residues in Ganges river dolphin from India. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26: 159–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kannan, K., S. Tanabe, R. Tatsukawa, and R.K. Sinha. 1994. Biodegradation capacity and residue pattern of organochlorines in Ganges river dolphins from India. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 42: 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kannan, K., K. Senthilkumar, and R.K. Sinha. 1997. Sources and accumulation of butyltin compounds in Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica. Applied Organometallic Chemistry 11: 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kannan, K., A.L. Blankenship, P.D. Jones, and J.P. Giesy. 2000. Toxicity reference values for the toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls in aquatic mammals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6: 181–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kannan, K., K. Ramu, N. Kajiwara, R.K. Sinha, and S. Tanabe. 2005. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 49: 415–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karr, J.R. 1999. Defining and measuring river health. Freshwater Biology 41: 221–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kasuya, T. 1972. Some information on the growth of the Ganges dolphin with a comment on the Indus dolphin. The Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute 24: 87–108.Google Scholar
  43. Kasuya, T., and A.K.M.A. Haque. 1972. Some informations on distribution and seasonal movement of the Ganges dolphin. The Scientific Reports of the Whales Institute 24: 109–115.Google Scholar
  44. Kelkar, N., J. Krishnaswamy, S. Choudhary, and D. Sutaria. 2010. Coexistence of fisheries with river dolphin conservation. Conservation Biology 24: 1130–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kumar, P., M. Kumar, A.L. Ramanathan, and M. Tsujimura. 2010. Tracing the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain, India: A source identification perspective. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 32: 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin, A.R., and V.M.F. da Silva. 2004. River dolphins and flooded forests; seasonal habitat use and sexual segregation of boto, Inia geoffrensis in an extreme cetacean environment. Journal of the Zoological Society of London 263: 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mishra, D.K. 1999. Above the danger mark. Himal 12: 12–17.Google Scholar
  48. Mohan, R.S.L. 1989. Conservation and management of the Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica, in India. 64–69 pp, In Biology and conservation of the river dolphins, Occasional papers of the IUCN/SSC, ed, by W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell, Jr., Z. Kaiya, and L. Jiankang, Vol. 3. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  49. Mohan, R.S.L., S.C. Dey, S.P. Bairagi, and S. Roy. 1997. On a survey of the Ganges River dolphin Platanista gangetica of Brahmaputra River, Assam. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94: 483–495.Google Scholar
  50. Mohan, R.S.L., S.C. Dey, and S.P. Bairagi. 1998. On a resident population of the Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica in the Kulsi River (Assam), a tributary of Brahmaputra. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 95: 1–7.Google Scholar
  51. Moreno, P. 2003. Ganges and Indus Dolphins. 13–17 pp. In Grzimek’s animal life encyclopedia, ed. by M. Hutchins, D. Kleinman, V. Geist, J. Murphy, D. Thoney, Vol. 15, 2nd Edition. Farmington Hills: Gale Group.Google Scholar
  52. Nickson, R., C. Sengupta, P. Mitra, S.N. Dave, A.K. Banerjee, A. Bhattacharya, S. Basu, N. Kakoti, N.S. Moorthy, M. Wasuja, M. Kumar, D.S. Mishra, A. Ghosh, D.P. Vaish, A.K. Srivastava, R.M. Tripathi, S.N. Singh, R. Prasad, S. Bhattacharya, and P. Deverill. 2007. Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India. Journal of Environmental Science and Health—Part A 42: 1707–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Noss, R.F. 1999. Assessing and monitoring forest biodiversity a suggested framework and indicators. Forest Ecology and Management 115: 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pelletier, C., and F.X. Pelletier. 1980. Report sur I’expedition delphinisia (Septembre 1977–Septembre 1978). Annales de la societe des sciences naturelle de la charaente maritime 6: 647–679.Google Scholar
  55. Perrin, W.F. 1988. Dolphins, porpoises and whales. An action plan for conservation of biological diversity: 1988–1992. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  56. Piatt, J.F., A.M.A. Harding, M. Shultz, S.G. Speckman, T.I. Van Pelt, G.C. Drew, and A.B. Kettle. 2007. Seabirds as indicators of marine food supplies; Cairns revisited. Seabirds as Indicators of Marine Ecosystems 352: 221–234.Google Scholar
  57. Pilleri, G. 1970. Observations on the behaviour of Platanista gangetica in the Indus and Brahmaputra rivers. Investigations on Cetacea 2: 27–59.Google Scholar
  58. Pilleri, G., and M.U. Bhatti. 1982. Status of the Indus dolphin population (Platanista indi, Blyth, 1859) between Sukkur and Taunsa barrages. Investigations on Cetacea 13: 245–252.Google Scholar
  59. Pilleri, G., and K. Zbinden. 1973–74. Size and ecology of the dolphin population (Platanista indi) between Sukkur and Guddu Barrages, Indus River. Investigations on Cetacea 5: 59–70.Google Scholar
  60. Poff, N.L., and J.D. Allan. 1995. Functional organization of stream fish assemblages in relation to hydrological variability. Ecology 76: 606–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Poff, N.L., J.D. Allan, M.B. Bain, J.R. Karr, K.L. Prestegaard, B.D. Richter, R.E. Sparks, and J.C. Stromberg. 1997. The natural flow regime: A paradigm for river conservation and restoration. BioScience 47: 769–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Power, M.E., A. Sun, G. Parker, W.E. Dietrich, and J.T. Wooton. 1995. Hydraulic food chain models—An approach to the study of food-web dynamics in large rivers. BioScience 45: 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reeves, R.R., and S. Leatherwood. 1994. Dams and River Dolphins: Can They Coexist? AMBIO 23: 172–175.Google Scholar
  64. Reeves, R.R., B.D. Smith, and T. Kasuya (eds.). 2000. Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 152 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Revenga, C., J. Brunner, N. Henniger, K. Kassem, and R. Payner. 2000. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems, freswater systems. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  66. Roxburgh, W. 1801. An account of a new species of Dolphinus, an inhabitant of the Ganges. Asiatic Research 7: 170–174.Google Scholar
  67. Sarkar, U.K., and M.B. Bain. 2007. Priority habitats for the conservation of large river fish in the Ganges River basin. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17: 349–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schofield, P.J. 2003. Habitat selection of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus, Gobiosoma robustum) influence of structural complexities, competitive interactions and presence of a predator. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 288: 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sergio, F., I. Newton, and L. Marchesi. 2005. Conservation: Top predators and biodiversity. Nature 436: 192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sergio, F., I. Newton, L. Marchesi, and P. Pedrini. 2006. Ecologically justified charisma: Preservation of top predators delivers biodiversity conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 1049–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sergio, F., T. Caro, D. Brown, B. Clucas, J. Hunter, J. Ketchum, K. McHugh, and F. Hiraldo. 2008. Top predators as conservation tools: Ecological rationale, assumptions, and efficacy. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 39: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Senthilkumar, K., K. Kannan, R.K. Sinha, S. Tanabe, and J.P. Giesy. 1999. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18: 1511–1520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shreshtha, T.K. 1989. Biology, status and conservation of the Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica, in Nepal. In Biology and conservation of the river dolphins. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, ed. by W.F. Perrin, R.L. Brownell, Jr., K. Zhou, J. Liu, Vol. 3, 70–76 pp. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  74. Singh, L.A.K., and R.K. Sharma. 1985. Gangetic dolphin, Platanista gangetica: Observations on the habits and distribution pattern in National Chambal Sanctuary. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 82: 648–653.Google Scholar
  75. Sinha, R. K. 1996. Final Technical Report on Dolphin Conservation Project, Patna University, Patna. Submitted to the Ganga Project Directorate, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt of India.Google Scholar
  76. Sinha, R.K. 1997. Status and conservation of Ganges River dolphin in Bhagirathi—Hooghly River systems in India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 23: 343–355.Google Scholar
  77. Sinha, R. K. 1999. The Ganges River dolphin—a tool for baseline assessment of biological diversity in River Ganges, India. Final Technical Report No. 1/99. Patna University, Patna, India.Google Scholar
  78. Sinha, R.K. 2000. Status of the Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in the vicinity of Farakka Barrage, India. In Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia, ed. by R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, T. Kasuya, Vol. 23, 42–48 pp. Occasional Gland, Switzerland: Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.Google Scholar
  79. Sinha, R.K. 2002. An alternative to dolphin oil as a fish attractant in the Ganges River system: Conservation of the Ganges River dolphin. Biological Conservation 107: 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sinha, R. K. 2004. ‘Bait and Watch’: Popularization of alternatives to Dolphin oil among fishermen for the conservation of the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in Bihar, 1–14 pp. New Delhi: Wildlife Trust of India.Google Scholar
  81. Sinha, R.K. 2013. The Gangetic dolphin and action plan for its conservation in Bihar, 52 pp. India: Department of Environment and Forests, Govt. of Bihar.Google Scholar
  82. Sinha, R.K., and K. Prasad. 2012. Management of water quality and biodiversity of the River Ganga. In Ecosystem & integrated water resources management in South Asia, ed. E.R.N. Gunawardane, B. Gopal, H. Kotagama, 104–132 pp. London, UK: Routeledge, Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  83. Sinha, R.K., and G. Sharma. 2003a. Faunal diversity of the River Sarda, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Ecophysiology Occupational Health 3: 103–116.Google Scholar
  84. Sinha, R.K., and G. Sharma. 2003b. Current status of Ganges dolphin, Platanista gangetica in River Son and Kosi in Bihar. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 100: 27–37.Google Scholar
  85. Sinha, R.K., B.D Smith, G. Sharma, K. Prasad, B.C. Choudhary, K. Sapkota, R.K. Sharma, and S.K. Behera. 2000. Status and distribution of the Ganges susu (Platanista gangetica) in Ganges River system of India and Nepal. In Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia, ed. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, T. Kasuya, Vol. 23, 42–48 pp. Gland, Switzerland: Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.Google Scholar
  86. Sinha, R.K., S.K. Sinha, D.K. Kedia, A. Kumari, N. Rani, G. Sharma, and K. Prasad. 2007. A holistic study on mercury pollution in the Ganga River system at Varanasi, India. Current Science 92: 1223–1228.Google Scholar
  87. Sinha, R.K., S.K. Verma, and L. Singh. 2010a. Population status and Conservation of the Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in the Indian subcontinent, Chapter 22, In Biology, evolution, and conservation of river Dolphins within South America and Asia, ed. M. Ruiz-Garcia, and J. Shostell. New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers. Inc. ISBN: 978-1-60876-633-8.Google Scholar
  88. Sinha, R.K., S.K. Behera, and B.C Choudhury. 2010b. Conservation Action Plan for the Gangetic dolphins. National Ganga River Basin Authority, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt of India. pp 44.Google Scholar
  89. Smith, B.D. 1993. Status and conservation of the Ganges River dolphin Platanista gangetica in the Karnali River, Nepal. Biological Conservation 66: 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith, B.D., and G.T. Braulik. 2009. Susu and Bhulan. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  91. Smith, B.D., and T.A. Jefferson. 2002. Status and conservation of facultative freshwater cetaceans in Asia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 10((Suppl.)): 173–187.Google Scholar
  92. Smith, B.D. and Reeves, R. R. 2000. Report of the second meeting of the Asian River Dolphin Committee, Rajendrapur, Bangladesh, 22–24 February 1997. In Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia, ed. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, T. Kasuya Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Vol. 23, 1–14 pp. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  93. Smith, B.D., R.K. Sinha, U. Regmi, and K. Sapkota. 1994. Status of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica) in the Karnali, Narayani and Saptakosi Rivers of Nepal and India in 1993. Marine Mammal Science 10: 68–75.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, B.D., A.K.M.A. Haque, M.S. Hossain, and A. Khan. 1998. River dolphins in Bangladesh: Conservation and the effects of water developments. Environmental Management 22: 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith, B.D., R.K. Sinha, K. Zhou, A.A. Chaudhry, L. Renjun, D. Wang, B. Ahmed, A.K.M. Aminul Haque, K. Sapkota, and R.S.L. Mohan. 2000. Register of water development projects affecting Asian river cetaceans. In Biology and conservation of freshwater cetaceans in Asia, ed. R.R. Reeves, B.D. Smith, T. Kasuya, Vol. 23, 22–39 pp. Gland, Switzerland: Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.Google Scholar
  96. Smith, B.D., B. Ahmed, M.E. Ali, and G. Braulik. 2001. Status of the Ganges River dolphin or shushuk Platanista gangetica in Kaptai Lake and the southern rivers of Bangladesh. Oryx 35: 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith, B.D., G. Braulik, S. Strindberg, B. Ahmed, and R. Mansur. 2006. Abundance of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) and Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) estimated using concurrent counts made by independent teams in waterways of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in Bangladesh. Marine Mammal Science 22: 527–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith, B.D., G. Braulik, S. Strindberg, R. Mansur, M.A.A. Diyan, and B. Ahmed. 2009. Habitat selection of freshwater cetaceans and the potential effects of declining freshwater flows and sea-level rise in waterways of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19: 209–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, B.D., M.A.A. Diyan, R.M. Mansur, E.F. Mansur, and B. Ahmed. 2010. Identification and channel characteristics of cetacean hotspots in waterways of the eastern Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. Fauna and Flora International. Oryx 1–7. doi:  10.1017/S003060530990159.
  100. Soule, M.E., J.A. Estes, B. Miller, and D.L. Honnold. 2005. Strongly interacting species: conservation policy, management and ethics. BioScience 55: 168–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stazner, B., and B. Higler. 1986. Stream hydraulics as a major determinant of benthic invertebrate zonation patterns. Freshwater Biology 16: 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thorp, J.H., M.C. Thoms, and M.D. Delong. 2006. The riverine ecosystem synthesis: Biocomplexity in river networks across space and time. River Research and Applications 22: 123–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Turvey, S.T., R.L. Pitman, B.L. Taylor, J. Barlow, T. Akamasu, L.A. Barrett, Z. Xiujiang, R.R. Reeves, B.S. Steward, K. Wang, W. Zhou, X. Zhang, L.T. Pusser, M. Richlen, J. Brandon, and W. Ding. 2007. First human caused extinction of cetacean species? Biology Letters 3: 537–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vidal, O., J. Barlow, L.A. Hurtado, J. Torre, P. Cendon, and Z. Ozeda. 1997. Distribution and abundance of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) and the tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis) in the Upper Amazon River. Marine Mammal Science 13: 427–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vorosmarty, C.J., P.B. Mcintyre, M.O. Gessner, D. Dudgeon, A. Prusevich, P. Green, S. Glidden, S.E. Bunn, C.A. Sullivan, and C.R. Lierman. 2010. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467: 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wakid, A. 2005. Status and distribution of newly documented residential Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) population in eastern Assam. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 102: 158–161.Google Scholar
  107. Wakid, A. 2009. Status and distribution of the endangered Gangetic dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in the Brahmaputra River within India in 2005. Current Science 97: 1143–1151.Google Scholar
  108. Worm, B., H.K. Lotze, and R.A. Myers. 2003. Predator diversity hotspots in the blue ocean. PNAS USA 1000: 9884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. WWF-Nepal. 2006. Conservation and management of river dolphins in Asia. Proceedings of the regional meeting on conservation and management of river dolphins. 26–27 May, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  110. Yeung, L.W.Y., N. Yamashita, S. Taniyasu, K.S. Lam, R.K. Sinha, D.V. Borole, and K. Kannan. 2009. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other water bodies in India. Chemosphere 76: 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhao, X., J. Barlow, B.L. Taylor, R.L. Pitman, K. Wang, Z. Wei, B.S. Stewart, S.T. Turvey, T. Akamatsu, R.R. Reeves, and D. Wang. 2008. Abundance and conservation status of the Yangtze finless porpoise in the Yangtze River, China. Biological Conservation 141: 3006–3018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyPatna UniversityPatnaIndia
  2. 2.Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health SciencesState University of New York at AlbanyAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations