, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 55–66 | Cite as

Differences in the Spatial Variability Among CO2, CH4, and N2O Gas Fluxes from an Urban Forest Soil in Japan

  • Sonoko Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura
  • Ayaka Wenhong Kishimoto-Mo
  • Noriko Oura
  • Seiko Sekikawa
  • Seichiro Yonemura
  • Shigeto Sudo
  • Atsushi Hayakawa
  • Kazunori Minamikawa
  • Yusuke Takata
  • Hiroshi Hara


The spatial variability of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from forest soil with high nitrogen (N) deposition was investigated at a rolling hill region in Japan. Gas fluxes were measured on July 25th and December 5th, 2008 at 100 points within a 100 × 100 m grid. Slope direction and position influenced soil characteristics and site-specific emissions were found. The CO2 flux showed no topological difference in July, but was significantly lower in December for north-slope with coniferous trees. Spatial dependency of CH4 fluxes was stronger than that of CO2 or N2O and showed a significantly higher uptake in hill top, and emissions in the valley indicating strong influence of water status. N2O fluxes showed no spatial dependency and exhibited high hot spots at different topology in July and December. The high N deposition led to high N2O fluxes and emphasized the spatial variability.


Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Rolling hill Spatial variability Urban forest 



This study was supported by the Tokyo Foundation for Better Environment. Special thanks are also due to members of Oze High School and all other people who participated in the two sampling events in 2008.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonoko Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura
    • 1
  • Ayaka Wenhong Kishimoto-Mo
    • 2
  • Noriko Oura
    • 2
  • Seiko Sekikawa
    • 3
  • Seichiro Yonemura
    • 4
  • Shigeto Sudo
    • 2
  • Atsushi Hayakawa
    • 5
  • Kazunori Minamikawa
    • 2
  • Yusuke Takata
    • 6
  • Hiroshi Hara
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of AgricultureTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyFuchuJapan
  2. 2.Carbon and Nutrient Cycles DivisionNational Institute for Agro-Environmental ScienceTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.College of AgricultureTamagawa UniversityMachidaJapan
  4. 4.Agro-Meteorology DivisionNational Institute for Agro-Environmental ScienceTsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Bioresource SciencesAkita Prefectural UniversityAkitaJapan
  6. 6.Natural Resources Inventory CenterNational Institute for Agro-Environmental ScienceTsukubaJapan
  7. 7.Department of AgricultureTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyFuchuJapan

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